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Flashcards in Individuals and Society (KA) Deck (46):
1

Fundamentalism

Reaction to secularization => go back to strict religious beliefs

2

Vygotsky

- 3 main features of theory

Sociocultural (social interaction) development

- Kids learn actively through hands-on processes
- MKO, Zone of Proximal development, language

3

3 assumptions of rational choice theory

Completeness
Transitivity
Independence of irrelevant alternatives

4

Self-concept

How someone perceives/evaluates themselves

5

Manifest functions

Intended consequences of institutions

Ex. businesses provide a service

6

Construct validity

Whether a tool is measuring what it is intended to measure

7

Just World Hypothesis

Karma

8

Feminist theory

Discrimination
Objectification
Oppression
Stereotyping

9

Optimism bias

Belief that bad things happen to others, but not us

10

Normative organization

Members come together through shared goals

- Ex. religion groups, MADD

11

Dependency ratio

Compares number of people younger than 14/older than 65 w/ people in labor force

12

Marx false consciousness

Unable to see oppression

13

Iron rule of oligarchy

Democracy => bureaucracy until governed by few

- Due to hesitancy to give up power

14

Vygotsky's 4 elementary mental functions

Attention
Sensation
Perception
Memory

15

Categorical self

Existing with others

16

Latent functions

Unintended consequences of institutions

Ex. Schools expose students to new activities

17

Weak social constructionism

Social constructs are dependent on brute facts = basic and fundamental (quarks in atoms)

vs. institutional facts

18

Mere exposure effect

Repeated exposure to something increases our liking for it

19

Linear regression

One-way influence of one variable on another

- Different from correlation, which makes no assumptions about which variable influences the other

20

Ecclesia

Dominant religious organization that includes most members of society

21

Social facts

Ways of thinking/acting formed by society that can't be influenced by any one individual

Ex. Law

22

Kelley's covariation model of attribution theory (3 cues)

Consistency (time)
Distinctiveness (situation)
Consensus (people)

23

World-Systems theory

World as a unit, divided into 3 countries

24

Vehicular control

What experimental group does w/o the directly desired impact

25

Rogers Humanistic theory 3 components

- Self image
- Self-esteem
- Ideal-self

26

Sick role

Expectation that lets you take break from responsibilities, but if you don't get better/return => deviant

27

Small vs. large societies

Small societies = held together by similarities

Large societies = people are interdependent

28

Medicalization

Human conditions previously considered normal get defined as medical conditions

29

Actor-Observer Bias

Similar to self-serving bias

30

Rational choice theory

People are not only motivated by money, but also do what's best to get better

- Assume people act by weighing costs and benefits, driven by self-interest

31

What happens when ideal self does not match real self

Incongruity

32

Existential self

Basic, separate/distinct from others

33

Case-control study

Observational, 2 groups differing in outcome are compared to find causal factor

34

Ainsworth's strange situation

Why do some have stranger anxiety and others don't

35

Index of dissimilarity (what do 0 and 100 mean?

0 = total segregation
100 = perfect distribution

36

Kohlberg

Moral development

- Moral reasoning

37

Fecundity

Potential reproductive capacity of a female

38

Strong social constructionism

Reality is dependent on language and social habits

- Says there are no brute facts, we just created everything

39

Reciprocal altruism

People are more cooperative if they will interact with that person again in future

40

Microculture

Only affects limited period of one's life

- Ex. girl scouts, soriorities

41

Exchange theory

Rational choice theory expanded to social interactions

- Sexual selection
- Social selection

42

Incipient stage of social movement

Public takes notice

43

Characteristics of bureaucracy

Division of labor
Hierarchy of organization
Written rules and regulations
Impersonality
Employment based on technical qualifications

44

Internal validity

Extent to which causal conclusion based on study is warranted

- Can be impacted by confounding factors

45

Past-in-Present discrimination

Things in past have consequences for people in present

- Brown v. BOE => girl integrated doesn't feel welcome

46

Projection bias

Assume other people share same beliefs we do