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Flashcards in Society and Culture Deck (42):
1

Biopsychosocial approach

Also focuses on health and wellness

Says that biology alone cannot account for intricacies of disease progression

2

Biomedical approach

Focuses narrowly only on physical aspects of illness

Emphasis on genetics and neurological functioning

3

Social constructionism

Human actors construct reality through beliefs and shared understandings/meanings.

Institutional facts exist only as a function of society's structures/beliefs.

Macro

4

Symbolic interactionism

Focuses on smaller scale of interaction b/w individuals and small groups.

Shared meanings and labels are made through social interactions.

Micro

5

Symbols

Terms, concepts, or items that represent specific meanings by accepted convention

6

Functionalism

Factions of society work together to maintain stability.

Stability

Organism model

Macro

7

Conflict theory

Competing groups act according to own self-interests.

Change

Marx model

Macro

8

Culture

Beliefs, assumptions, objects, behaviors, processes that make up a shared way of life

9

Material culture

Objects involved in a certain way of life

10

Non-material culture

Elements of culture that are not physical

Ex. Ideas, knowledge, assumptions, values, beliefs

11

Social norms

Expectations that govern what behavior is acceptable w/in a group

12

Social group

Subset of population that maintains social interactions

Collection of shared experiences

13

Society

Two or more individuals living together in community and/or sharing elements of a culture

14

Social institutions

Hierarchical systems that bring order to interpersonal interactions

15

Examples of social institutions

Government and economy
Education
Religion
Family
Health and Medicine

16

Examples of demographics

Age, gender, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, immigration status, education

17

Fertility

Production of offspring w/in a population

18

Mortality

Death rate

19

Social movement

Group of people who share an ideology and work together toward a specified set of goals

20

Urbanization

Increase in proportion of people living in specified urban areas

21

Globalization

Increasing amount of interaction and integration on international scale

22

McDonaldization of society

Efficiency, calculability, uniformity, and technological control

23

Spatial inequality

Unequal access to resources and variable quality of life w/in population/geographical distribution

24

Global inequality

Disparities b/w regions and nations in GDP, natural resources, access to healthcare, work available

25

Environmental justice

Equal treatment of people regardless of demographics w/ regard to prevention and relief from hazards

26

Residential segregation

Local separation of demographic groups into different neighborhoods

27

Social class

System of stratification that groups members of society according to similarities in social standing

Tied to status and power

28

Privilege

Advantages of power and opportunity over those who lack privilege

29

Prestige

Relative value assigned to something w/in a society

30

Cultural capital

Non-monetary social factors that contribute to social mobility

How individual "fits in" or "sticks out"

Knowledge, skills, education

31

Social capital

Social networks/connections that may confer economic/personal benefit

32

Social reproduction

Transmission of social inequality from one generation to next

33

Poverty

Insufficiency of goods, wealth, and access to resources

34

Isolation/social exclusion

Lack of access to resources

35

Absolute poverty

Lack of essential resources

36

Relative poverty

Social inequality in which people are poor compared to other members in society

37

Health disparity/health inequity

Differences in health/healthcare that occur b/w different groups of people

38

Social epidemiology

Contribution of social/cultural factors to disease patterns in populations

39

Exchange theory

Behavior of individual in interaction can be figured out by rewards/punishments

40

Rational theory

Individual acts to maximize his/her advantages

41

Demographic transition theory

Changes in birth/death rate that are associated w/ economic development (industrialization)

Begins w/ drop in death rate => population growth

Followed by drop in birth rate => population stabilization

42

Intersectionality

How identity categories intersect in systems of social stratification

Ex. individual's position in social hierarchy = determined by social class AND race/ethnicity