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Flashcards in Relationships and Behavior Deck (82):
1

Cross-sectional data

Received from observing many subjects at same point in time

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Longitudinal data

Track same sample at different time points

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Unidirectional relationship

One thing leads to another and not vice versa

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Reciprocal relationship

Both things can influence each other

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Behavioral learning

Individual determines what behaviors are culturally appropriate and consequences of behaviors

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Associative learning (conditioning)

Learning involving associations b/w stimuli and specific responses

Classical vs. operant

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Classical conditioning

Subject develops response to previously neutral stimulus by associating it with another stimulus that already elicited that response

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Unconditioned stimulus

Stimuli that initially elicits desired response w/o need for conditioning

Ex. food => saliva

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Unconditioned response

Desired response that is initially elicited due to unconditioned stimulus w/ no need for conditioning

Ex. Saliva as a result of food

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Neutral stimulus

Stimulus that initially elicits no response

Ex. Food bowl

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Conditioned stimulus

A neutral stimulus that is conditioned to eventually elicit a (conditioned) response

Ex. Food bowl => saliva

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Conditioned response

Response that has been conditioned to be a result of the conditioned stimulus

Ex. Saliva due to food bowl

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Acquisition

Stage of learning over which a conditioned response to a new stimulus is established

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Spontaneous recovery

Reappearance of conditioned response after period of lessened response

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Stimulus discrimination

Learned lack of response to a similar stimuls

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Operant conditioning

Type of associative learning where individual becomes more or less likely to carry out certain behavior based on its consequences

Deprives subject of some desirable stimulus for a period of time

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Reinfocement

Increases behavior

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Positive reinforcement

Add pleasant stimulus

Ex. gift

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Negative reinforcement

Removal of unpleasant stimulus

Ex. stop nagging

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Punishment

Decreases behavior

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Positive punishment

Add unpleasant stimulus

Ex. spank

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Negative punishment

Removal of pleasant stimulus

Ex. confiscate phone

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Types of consequences are ____ or ____

Primary or secondary

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Primary punishment/reinforcement

Relates to physiological need (does not require learning)

Increases likelihood of response

Ex. food, pain

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Secondary punishment/reinforcement

Require learning and social context to affect behavioral decisions

AKA conditioned reinforcers/punishers

Ex. money, praise, scolding

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Escape conditioning

Learned behavior that allows subject to escape unpleasant stimulus

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Avoidance conditioning

Learned behavior that allows subject to avoid unpleasant stimulus by employing specific response

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Reinforcement schedule

How often and under what conditions a behavior is reinforced

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Partial (intermittent) reinforcement

Rewarded only sometimes

After behavior is learned, this makes it more resistant to extinction

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Continuous reinforcement

Most rapid way to first establish response

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Instinctual drift

Established habits are eventually replaced by innate/instinctual behaviors

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Shaping

Shapes behavior toward a certain response by reinforcing successive approximations toward desired behavior

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Innate behaviors

Developmentally fixed and influenced by physiology/genetic inheritance

Difficult to change

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Cognitive processes

Necessary for associative learning of non-instinctual behaviors

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Observational learning

Based on modeling (witnessing another's actions and retaining info on that behavior to later re-enact it)

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Mirror neurons

Fire both when completing an action and when person observes someone completing same action => help learning by imitation

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Vicarious emotions

Feeling emotions of others as though they are one's own

Necessary component of modeling/observational learning

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Modeling

Witnessing another's actions and retaining info on that behavior to later re-enact it

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Spacing effect

Learning is greater when spaced out

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Behavior

Sum of coordinated responses to internal/external stimuli

Partially influenced by biology (genes, neural connections, hormones)

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Nonverbal communication

Body language, touch, appearance, facial expressions

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Animal signals

Vocalizations, visual stimulus, touch, smell

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Social behavior

Interaction w/ members of the same species

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Foraging behavior

Set of behaviors through which animals get food

Maximize energy from food and minimize expenditure

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Mating behavior

Behavior surrounding reproductive propagation of species

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Altruism

Behavior disadvantageous to individual, but benefit members of its social group

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Inclusive fitness

Overall fitness considers offspring of close relatives => care for offspring of your friends w/ similar genetic makeup

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Game theory

Complex decision making which must account for actions of other group members

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Group

Set of individuals who interact with each other and share some elements of identity

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Social networks

Webs of weaker social interactions

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Organization

Group coordinating interactions toward a specific purpose

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Impression management

Behavioral choices to create impression in minds of others

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Dramaturgical approach

Behavior = ongoing performance that depends on situation

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Front stage self

Behavior player performs in front of audience

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Back stage self

No audience => let go of conventions from stage

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Groupthink

Group's members think alike and agree for sake of group harmony (conformity) => censor ideas that go against group norms

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Group polarization

Attitude of group as a whole becomes stronger than attitudes of individual members

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Social facilitation

Tendency to perform better when a person knows he is being watched

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Social loafing

Members of a group decrease pace/intensity of own work and let other members work harder

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Deindividuation

People lose awareness of individuality and immerse themselves in mood/activities of a crowd

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Hawthorne effect

Alteration of behavior by subjects due to awareness of being observed

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Thomas theorem

Interpretation of a situation causes action

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Socialization

Process by which people learn customs and values of their culture

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Social norms

Rules community members are expected to follow

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Conformity

Change attitudes, opinions, and behaviors to align with group norms

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Obedience

Behavioral changes made in response to command by authority figure

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Deviance

Unable to recognize social norms or chooses not to follow them

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Stigma

Negative social label that changes a person's social identity by classifying them as abnormal/tainted

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Assimilation

Process by which individual/group becomes part of new culture (language acquisition, knowledge)

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Ethnocentrism

Belief that one's group is of central importance => judges practices of other groups by one's own cultural standards

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Cultural relativism

Trying to understand a culture on its own terms and judge it by its own standards

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In-group

Group with which an individual shares identity with and loyalty

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Prejudices

Strict generalizations about other groups

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Out-group

Group with which person does not identify with and may feel competition/hostility

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Bias

Establishment of in-group/out-group

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Schema

Organizing patterns of thought used to categorize/interpret info => shapes individual attitudes/perspectives

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Stereotype

Concept about a group that includes belief that all members of that group share certain characteristics

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Stereotype threat

Anxiety/impaired performance when confronted with a negative stereotype

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Self-fulfilling prophecies

Stereotypical beliefs that become realities

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Discrimination

Unfair treatment of other based on membership in specific group

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Individual discrimination

One person behaves negatively toward another

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Institutional discrimination

Social institutions employ policies that differentiate people based on social grouping