Thoughts and Emotion Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Thoughts and Emotion Deck (70):
1

Cognition

Wide range of internal mental activities

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Perception

Organization and identification of sensory inputs

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Info processing takes place in ______

Cerebral cortex
- Most evolved part of brain
- 4 lobes

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Frontal lobe

Motor control, decision making, long-term memory storage

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Parietal lobe

Somatosensory cortex

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Occipital lobe

Visual info

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Temporal lobe

Auditory + olfactory info, emotion and language

8

Piaget's theory of cognitive development

Reconciled nature and nurture
- Kids group by experimenting w/ environment

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Assimilation (Piaget)

Results of experimentation are fitted into preexisting schema

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Accommodation (Piaget)

New info doesn't fit previous schema => schema are changed

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Sensorimotor (Piaget)

Birth - 2 years
- Learn to use language
- Think literally
- Object permanence (things continue to exist when out of sight)

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Preoperational (Piaget)

2 - 7 years
- Language, think literally
- Maintain egocentric worldview

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Concrete Operational (Piaget)

7 - 11 years
- Logical in concrete thinking
- Inductive reasoning (specific => general)
- Conservation

14

Formal Operational (Piaget)

11 years or older
- Logical in abstract thinking
- Deductive reasoning (general => specific)
- Theoretical and philosophical
- Don't care about consequences

15

Learning theory of language development (AKA behaviorist theory)

Language is learned through operant conditioning
- Not innate

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Nativist theory of language development

Language = innate biological mechanisms

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Interactionist theory of language development

Interplay b/w environment and innate biology

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Broca's area

Speech production
- Frontal lobe (left hemisphere)

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Wernicke's area

Speech comprehension
- Temporal lobe

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Intelligence

Ability to understand and reason with complex ideas
- Adapt to environment

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Intelligence Quotient average and SD

Average = 100; SD = 15

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General intelligence factor

Every individual has set level of intelligence (two types)
- Fluid intelligence
- Crystallized inteligence

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Fluid intelligence

Ability to think logically w/o need for previously learned info (critical thinking)
- Peaks in young adulthood, then declines

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Crystallized intelligence

Think logically using previously learned knowledge
- Remains stable through adulthood

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Theory of multiple intelligences

Variety of intelligence based on different domains

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Sternberg's triarchic theory

Processes, experiences, and cultural environment interact to yield person's intelligence
- Analytical
- Creative
- Practical

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Emotional intelligence (4 components)

- Perceiving emotion
- Using and reasoning w/ emotions
- Understanding emotions
- Managing emotions

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Cognitive biases

Tendencies to think in particular ways

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Functional fixedness

Tendency to view objects as having only single function

30

Belief perseverance

Hold on to initial beliefs even when rational argument suggests they're incorrect

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Overconfidence

Information that should logically undermine confidence is overlooked

32

Causation bias

Tendency to assume cause and affect relationship

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Representativeness heuristic

Make educated guess about probability of event based on prior knowledge

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Availability heuristic

Assign high likelihood to event b/c highly "available" to conscious thought

35

Fundamental attribution error

Attribute others' actions to internal forces (personality) rather than external circumstances

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Self-serving bias

Attribute own actions to external circumstances

37

Three components of emotion

- Cognitive
- Physiological
- Behavioral

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Universal emotions

Fear, anger, surprise, happiness, disgust, sadness

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Limbic system

Connects hypothalamus w/ structures in temporal lobe
- Holds amygdala

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Amygdala

Responsible for emotional reactions of fear and anger

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Prefrontal cortex

Conscious regulation of emotional states
- Critical in temperament and decision making

42

Hypothalamus

Regulates autonomic nervous system's SNS and PNS

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James-Lange theory of emotion

Emotion is physiologically-based

- External stimulus => physiological response
- Sequential

44

Cannon-Bard theory of emotion

Emotional feelings and physiological reactions to stimuli are experienced simultaneously

- Not sequential

45

Schacter-Singer theory of emotion

Both physiological response and situational cues

46

Motivation

Originates from unsatisfied needs (psychological or physiological)

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Instinct

Tendency to perform behavior that leads to fulfillment of need

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Drive reduction theory

People are motivated to take action in order to lessen state of arousal caused by physiological need

49

Incentive theory

Motivated by external rewards

50

Cognitive theories of emotion

People behave based on expectations of what will provide most favorable outcome

51

Need-based theories

People are motivated by desire to fulfill unmeet needs

52

Three major components of attitude

ABC model
- Affective component (feelings about object, person, event)
- Behavioral component
- Cognitive component (belief/knowledge about object of interest)

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Foot-in-the-door phenomenon

People more likely to agree to large favor after agreeing to smaller one

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Cognitive dissonance

Conflict b/w internal attitudes and external behaviors

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Cognitive dissonance theory

People have inherent desire to avoid internal discomfort associated w/ mismatch b/w behaviors and attitudes
- Usually change attitudes (easier)

56

Elaboration likelihood model

Information processing approach to persuasion
- How person receives argument
- Peripheral route processing vs. Central route processing
- Intentional persuasion

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Peripheral route processing

Individual does not think deeply to evaluate argument
- Minimal knowledge/interest in subject

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Central route processing

Person thinks deeply and elaborates on argument

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Social-cognitive theory

Behavior/attitudes change through system of reciprocal causation

60

Factors affecting attitude change

- Behavior change
- Characteristics of the message
- Characteristics of the target
- Social factors

61

Stress

Strain experienced when organism's equilibrium is disrupted and it must adapt

62

Cognitive appraisals

Personal interpretations of situations that trigger stress

63

Primary appraisal

Evaluate situation for threat

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Secondary appraisal

Assess personal ability to cope with threat

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SNS releases ______ and ______

Epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)

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Adrenal glands release ____

Cortisol

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Incidence of diagnosable psychological disorders

27%

68

Dishabituation

Return to heightened anxiety after period of habituation

- Relapse

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Habituation

Prolonged stimulus results in decrease of anxiety

70

Facilitated neurons

Elevated resting potential closer to threshold => lower stimulus will lead to depolarization

- Threshold potential of neuron is not changed