Sensory Perception (KA) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Sensory Perception (KA) Deck (34):
1

Visual cues

Depth, form, motion, constancy

2

Monocular cues

Relative size
Interposition
Relative height
Shading and contour
Motion parallax (things far away move slower)

3

Constancy

Our perception of object doesn't change even if it looks different on retina

4

What type of relationship is Weber's Law?

Linear

5

Absolute threshold

- Subliminal stimuli

Detect stimulus 50% of time

- Subliminal = stim below threshold

6

Gestalt principles

Similarity
Pragnanz (reduced to simplest form)
Proximity
Continuity
Closure

7

How many rods vs cones?

120 million rods vs. 6 million cones

8

Does rod turn on bipolar cell when it is off or on?
What does the BPC do?

Rod OFF => BPC ON => RGC ON => optic nerve

9

Rhodopsin

Ptn in rods that has retinal (gets hit by light) => conformation change

10

Phototransduction cascade

Light =>
rhodopsin (retinal) =>
transducin =>
phosphodiesterase =>
cGMP becomes GMP =>
Na channels close =>
rods hyperpolarize and turn off =>
disinhibition of BPC =>
RGC

11

Rods have ___opsin, cones have ___opsin

Rhodopsin vs. photopsin

12

Which is more sensitive to light: rods or cones?

Rods (1000x) but don't detect color

- Slow recovery time

13

Where does right visual field info go??

Right visual field => Left side of brain (and vice versa)

14

Basilar tuning

Hair cells in cochlea base = activated by high frequencies

Apex = activated by low frequencies

15

Tonotypical mapping

Brain can distinguish different frequencies using basilar tuning

16

Kineasthesia vs. Proprioception

Kinaesthesia = movement of body (behavioral)

Proprioception = balance/position (cognitive awareness)

17

Pain fibers (3 types)

A-beta = fast, myelin
A-delta = smaller, less myelin
C = small, unmyelinated (lingering pain)

18

Pheromones

Chemical signal => triggers innate response

19

Taste buds (3 types)

Fungiform (anterior), foliate (side), circumvallate (back)

20

Labelled lines model of gustation

- What type of receptors?

Each receptor has axon that synapses on different parts of gustatory cortex through GPCR receptors

21

4 types of brain waves

Beta - alert
Alpha - daydreaming/relax
Theta - drowsiness
Delta - deep sleep

22

Sleep stages of non-REM

N1 = theta waves, hallucinations


N2 = sleep spindles, K-complexes

N3 = delta waves, sleepwalk/talk

Cycle 4-5 times per sleep (N1=> N2 => N3 => N2 => REM)

23

REM

Paralyzed
Dreaming
Memory consolidation
Combo of all waves
Decreased prefrontal cortex (no logic)

24

Sleep apnea

Stop breathing while sleeping

25

Cheyne-Stokes breathing

Period of oscillations, then flat

Pattern in polysomnography

26

Hypnotism brain waves

- Theories for how it works

Alpha waves (awake but relaxed)

- Dissociation vs Social Influence theory

27

Barbiturates (depressant)

Induce sleep
Reduce anxiety
Depress CNS

28

Benzodiazepines (depressant)

Suppressant
Enhance GABA response
Short, intermediate, or long-acting

29

Nicotine

Disrupts sleep, suppresses appetite

30

Cocaine

Strong stimulant

31

Amphetamines/meth

Trigger DA release

32

Where is DA produced in reward pathway?

Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) in midbrain

33

Mesolimbic pathway

Rewards pathway

- NAcc, amygdala, hippocampus

34

Methadone

Activates opiate receptors slowly => dampens high