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Flashcards in Biostats Deck (29):
1

Mean

Average

2

Median

Middle value

3

Mode

Most frequent value

4

Sensitivity

People that have the disease with a (+) test

5

Specificity

People that don't have the disease with a (-) test

6

PPV

Probability of having a disease with a (+) test

7

NPV

Probability of not having a disease with a (-) test

8

Incidence

New cases (rate per unit time)

9

Prevalence

Total cases (at one time)

10

Odds Ratio

Diseased are x times more likely to see risk factor

11

Confidence interval = 95%

95% sure it lies within the interval

12

Relative Risk

Risk of getting a disease with known exposure

13

NNT

Number needed to treat to change 1 life

14

p value

Random chance that you will be wrong 1 time out of 20

15

Null Hypothesis

Nothing happened

16

Power

Probability of detecting true intervention

17

Type I Error

P value errorFalse negativeToo optimistic

18

Type II Error

Power errorFalse positiveToo pessimistic

19

Accuracy

Validity (truth)

20

Precision

Reliability (keep making the same mistake)

21

Phases of Clinical Trials

I = Toxicity (hurt PT?)II = Efficacy (help PT?)III = Comparison (any better?)IV = Post-marketing surveillance (can they screw it up?)

22

Cohort Study

Prospective study that provides incidence (new cases)Uses relative risk

23

Case Control Study

Retrospective study that provides prevalence (total cases)Uses odds ratio

24

Cross Sectional Study

Provides a prevalence (snapshot)

25

Case Report

Describes an unusual PT

26

Case Series Report

Describes several unusual PTs

27

Consensus Panels

Panel of experts provide a recommendation

28

Clinical Wisdom

"I think..." paper

29

Meta-analysis

Tries to combine data from many trials