Flashcards in Biostats Deck (29):

1

## Mean

### Average

2

## Median

### Middle value

3

## Mode

### Most frequent value

4

## Sensitivity

### People that have the disease with a (+) test

5

## Specificity

### People that don't have the disease with a (-) test

6

## PPV

### Probability of having a disease with a (+) test

7

## NPV

### Probability of not having a disease with a (-) test

8

## Incidence

### New cases (rate per unit time)

9

## Prevalence

### Total cases (at one time)

10

## Odds Ratio

### Diseased are x times more likely to see risk factor

11

## Confidence interval = 95%

### 95% sure it lies within the interval

12

## Relative Risk

### Risk of getting a disease with known exposure

13

## NNT

### Number needed to treat to change 1 life

14

## p value

### Random chance that you will be wrong 1 time out of 20

15

## Null Hypothesis

### Nothing happened

16

## Power

### Probability of detecting true intervention

17

## Type I Error

### P value errorFalse negativeToo optimistic

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## Type II Error

### Power errorFalse positiveToo pessimistic

19

## Accuracy

### Validity (truth)

20

## Precision

### Reliability (keep making the same mistake)

21

## Phases of Clinical Trials

### I = Toxicity (hurt PT?)II = Efficacy (help PT?)III = Comparison (any better?)IV = Post-marketing surveillance (can they screw it up?)

22

## Cohort Study

### Prospective study that provides incidence (new cases)Uses relative risk

23

## Case Control Study

### Retrospective study that provides prevalence (total cases)Uses odds ratio

24

## Cross Sectional Study

### Provides a prevalence (snapshot)

25

## Case Report

### Describes an unusual PT

26

## Case Series Report

### Describes several unusual PTs

27

## Consensus Panels

### Panel of experts provide a recommendation

28

## Clinical Wisdom

### "I think..." paper

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