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Flashcards in Endo Deck (134):
1

Necrosis

Nonprogrammed cell deathInflammationNucleus destroyed first

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Apoptosis

Programmed cell deathNo inflammationNucleus destroyed last

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Pyknosis

Nucleus turns into blobs

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Karyohexis

Nucleus fragments

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Karyolysis

Nucleus dissolves

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Somatotrope

GH

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Gonadotrope

LH and FSH

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Thyrotrope

TSH

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Cortiotrope

ACTH

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Lactotrope

Prolactin

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Receptors used by protein hormones

Cell membrane receptors

12

Receptors used by steroid hormones

Nuclear membrane receptors

13

Steroid Hormones

PET CAD (+ Thyroid)Progesterone EstrogenTestosteroneCortisolAldosteroneVitamin D

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Endocrine

Secretion into blood

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Exocrine

Secretion into not blood

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Autocrine

Works on itself

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Paracrine

Works on its neighbors

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Merocrine

Exocytosis - cell is maintained

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Apocrine

Apex of cell secreted

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Holocrine

Whole cell secreted

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Organs that do not require insulin for glucose

BRICKLEBrainRBCIntestinesCardiac, CorneaKidneyLiverExercising muscle

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GnRH

Stimulates FSH and LH

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GRH

Stimulates GH

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CRH

Stimulates ACTH

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TRH

Stimulates TSH

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PRH

Stimulates Prolactin

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Dopamine

Inhibits Prolactin

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Somatostatin

Inhibits GHInhibits secretin, motilin, CCK

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ADH

Conserves waterVasoconstrictsConcentrates urine

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Oxytocin

Milk productionBirth

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GH

IGF-1 release from liverGrowthSends somatomedin to growth platesGluconeogenesis by proteolysis

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TSH

T3 and T4 release from thyroid

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LH

Testosterone release from testesEstrogen and Progesterone from ovary

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FSH

Sperm or egg growth

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ACTH

Cortisol release from adrenal gland

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MSH

Skin pigmentation

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Stress Hormones

Immediate = Epinephrine20 minutes = Glucagon30 minutes = Insulin and ADH2-4 hrs = Cortisol24 hrs = GH

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Diabetes Insipidus

Too little ADHUrinate a lot

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Central DI

Brain not making ADH

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Nephrogenic DI

Blocked ADH receptorCan be caused by Lithium or Demecocycline

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Water deprivation test

Concentrate urine = PsychogenicFail to concentrate urine = DI

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DDAVP

Concentrate urine = Central DIFail to concentrate urine = Nephrogenic DI

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SIADH

Too much ADHExpanded plasma volumePee Na+

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Difference between SIADH and DI

DI = dilute urineSIADH = concentrated urine

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Psychogenic Polydipsia

Pathologic water drinkingLow plasma osmolarity

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Aldosterone

Reabsorbs Na+Secretes H+ and K+

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Neuroblastoma

Adrenal medulla tumor in kidsDancing eyes and feetSecretes catecholamines

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Pheochromocytoma

Adrenal medulla tumor in adultsPressurePainPalpitationsPerspirationPallor

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Zona Glomerulosa makes

Aldosterone

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Zona Fasiculata makes

Cortisol

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Zona Reticularis makes

Androgens

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Conn's Syndrome

High aldosterone d/t tumorCaptopril test makes it worse

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ANP

Inhibits aldosteroneDilates renal artery (afferent arteriole)

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Calcitonin

Inhibits osteoclasts

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MEN I

Wermer'sPancreasPituitary Parathyroid adenomaHigh gastrin

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MEN II (2A)

Sipple'sParathyroidPheochromocytomaMedullary thyroid cancer

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MEN III (2B)

PheochromocytomaMedullary thyroid cancerMucosal neuromas (oral/GI)Marfanoid

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CCK

Gallbladder contractionBile releaseInhibits gastric motility (closes sphincters)

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Cortisol

Gluconeogenesis by proteolysis Leads to thin skin

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Addison's Disease

AI destruction of adrenal cortexHyperpigmentationIncreased ACTH

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Waterhouse Friderichsen

Adrenal hemorrhageMC bug = N. meningitidis

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Cushing's Syndrome

High cortisol d/t: pituitary tumor, small cell lung tumor, adrenal tumor

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Cushing's Disease

High cortisol d/t: pituitary tumor or small cell lung cancer

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Nelson's Syndrome

Hyperpigmentation after adrenalectomy

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Low Dose Dexamethasone Test - Suppresses

Normal, obese, depressed

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Low Dose Dexamethasone Test - Doesn't Suppress

Cushing's - do High dose test

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High Dose Dexamethasone Test - Suppresses

Pituitary Tumor

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High Dose Dexamethasone Test - Doesn't Suppress

Check ACTH High = small cell lung cancerLow = adrenal adenoma

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Survival Hormones

Cortisol = permissive under stressTSH = permissive under normal

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Epinephrine

GluconeogenesisGlycogenolysis

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Erythropoietin

Makes RBCs

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Gastrin

Stimulates parietal cells to release IF and H+

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Pygmie

No somatomedin receptors

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Achondroplasia

Abnormal FGF receptors in extremities

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Midget

Low somatomedin receptor sensitivity

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Acromegaly

Adult bones stretch Coarse facial featuresLarge furrowed tongueDeep, husky voiceJaw protrusionIncreased IGF-1 d/t GH tumor

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Gigantism

Childhood acromegaly

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GIP

Enhances insulin actionLeads to post-prandial hypoglycemia

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Glucagon

GluconeogenesisGlycogenolysisLipolysis Ketogenesis

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Insulin

Pushed glucose into cells with K+

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Type I DM

Anti-islet cell AbGAD AbCocksackie B virusLow insulinDKA

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Type II DM

Insulin receptor insensitivity High insulinHONKAcanthosis nigricans

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DKA presentation

Kussmaul's breathingFruity breath (acetone)Altered mental status

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Dawn Phenomenon

AM hyperglycemia d/t GH

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Somogyi Effect

AM hyperglycemia d/t PM hypoglycemia

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Insulinoma

Tumor High insulin, High C-peptide

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Factitious Hypoglycemia

Insulin injectionHigh insulin, Low C-peptide

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Erythrasma

Rash in skin folds

89

Metabolic Syndrome X

Pre-DM:HTNDyslipidemiaHyperinsulinemiaAcanthosis nigricans

90

Foot ulcer risk factors

DMMale smokerBony abnormalitiesPrevious ulcers

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Conditions that cause weight gain

ObesityHypothyroidismDepressionCushing'sAnasarca

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Motilin

Stimulates segmentation - primary peristalsis

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Prolactin

Milk production

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PTH

Chews up bone

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Vitamin D

Builds bone

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Parathyroid Chief Cells secrete

PTH

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Stomach Chief Cells secrete

Pepsin

98

Difference between NE and Epinephrine

NE = NTEpinephrine = homone

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Primary Hyperparathyroidism

Parathyroid adenoma

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Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

Renal failure

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Familial hypocalcuria hypercalcemia

Decreased Ca2+ excretion

102

If serum Ca2+ and P change in same direction

Vitamin D Both decrease = deficiencyBoth increase = toxicity

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If serum Ca2+ and P change in opposite directions

PTH problemHigh Ca2+ = HyperparathyroidismLow Ca2+ = Hypoparathyroidism

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MCC Primary Hypoparathyroism

Thyroidectomy

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Pseudohypoparathyroidism

Bad kidney PTH receptorDecreased urinary cAMP

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Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism

G-protein defectNo Ca2+ problem

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Hungry Bone Syndrome

Remove PTH and bone sucks in Ca2+

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Secretin

Secretion of bicarbInhibit gastrinTighten pyloric sphincter

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T3 and T4

Growth and differentiation

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Disease with exopthalmos

Grave's

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Disease with enopthalmos

Horner's

112

Hyperthyroid Diseases

Grave'sDeQuervain'sSilentPlummer'sJod-Basedow

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Grave's

HyperthyroidExophthalmosPretibial myxedemaTSH receptor Ab

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DeQuervain's

HyperthyroidViralPainful in jaw

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Silent Thyroiditis

HyperthyroidPost-partum

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Plummer's

HyperthyroidBenign adenomaOld person

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Jod-Basedow

Transient hyperthyroid d/t increased iodine

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Hypothyroid Diseases

Hashimoto'sReidel's StrumaCretinismEuthryroid Sick SyndromeWolff-Chaikoff

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Hashimoto's

HypothyroidAntimicrosomial AbTPO Ab

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Reidel's Struma

Hypothyroid Woody Neck

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Cretinism

Hypothyroid mom and babyFreak features

122

Euthyroid Sick Syndrome

Low T3 Syndrome

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Wolff-Chaikoff

Transient hypothyroidism

124

Testosterone

External male genetalia

125

Mullerian Inhibiting Factor

Internal male genetalia

126

TPO and Thymosin

Help T-cells mature

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VIP

Inhibits secretin, motilin, CCK

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VIPoma presentation

Watery diarrhea

129

Somatostatinoma presentation

Constipation

130

Hormones with disulfide bonds

PIGI:ProlactinInhibinGHInsulin

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Hormones with same alpha subunits

LHFSHTSHbeta HCG

132

Hormones that produce acidophils

GHPRL

133

Hormones that produce basophils

FSHLHACTHTSH

134

Hormones released from posterior pituitary

ADH (supraoptic nucleus)Oxytocin (paraventricular nucleus)