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Flashcards in Nephrology Deck (83):
1

What are the 6 low complement nephritic syndromes?

SBE
SLE
serum sickeness
cryoglobulinemia
PSGN
MPGN II

2

What are the hormones with disulfide bonds?

PIGI
prolactin
inhibin
GH
insulin

3

What do you see psammoma bodies in?

meningioma
mesothelioma
papillary carcinoma of thyroid
serous cystadenoma of ovary

4

What are the Jones criteria for Acute Rheumatic Fever?

J: joints
O: carditis
N: subcutaneous nodules
E: erythema marginatum
S: sydenham chorea

5

What are the IgA nephropathies?

HSP (Henoch Schlonein Purpura)
Berger's
Alport's

6

What causes renal induced acidosis?

plasma RTA
metabolic acidosis
glutaminase
ammonia production in CD (10% of urea cycle)

7

What hormones are produced by small cell lung carcinoma?

ACTH
ADH
PTH
TSH
ANP

8

What are the 4 causes of SIADH?

small cell carcinoma
increased intracranial pressure
drugs
hypoxia

9

What are the low volume states with acidosis?

diarrhea and RTA

10

What are the types of kidney stones?

calcium oxalate
struvite
uric acid
cysteine

11

What are the clues for pseudogout?

positively birefringent rhomboid crystals
calcium pyrophosphate
elderly pts
men=women

12

What are the bladder cancer risk factors?

smoking
aniline dyes
aflatoxine
benzenes
cyclophosphamide
Von Hippel Lindau
Tuberos Sclerosis
Schistosoma haematobium

13

What are the causes of papillary necrosis?

AIDS and vasculitides

14

What are the 3 narrowings of ureter?

pelvic brim
hilum
entrance to the bladder

15

What is nephritic syndrome?

hematuria
protein loss

16

What is nephrotic syndrome?

protein loss >3.5 g/dL
edema
hyperlipidemia (VLDL)
hypercoagulable (2,7,9,10,C,S)
dec serum albumin
inc urine albumin
loss of basement membrane charge due to deposition on heparin sulfate leading to massive proteinuria and lipiduria

17

What are the most common causes of UTIs?

#1 E. coli
#2 Proteus
#3 Klebsiella

18

What is the most frequent cause of UTI in females 5-10yrs and 18-24 yrs?

staph saprophyticus

19

What is pre-renal failure?

low vol state
BUN:Cr>20:1
low flow to kidneys
lao Na in urin
low FeNa
concentrated urine

20

What is intra-renal failure?

BUN:Cr

21

What is the vasculitic pattern for renal artery stenosis?

clot in front of renal artery

22

What is glomerulonephritis?

inflamed glomeruli

23

What is vasculitic pattern for interstitial nephritis?

clot off the medulla

24

What is the vasculitic pattern for focal segmental glomerulonephritiis?

clot off part of nephron

25

What do yo see in rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis?

crescents
composed of glomeruler parietal cells, monocytes, macrophage and abundant fibrin

26

What is the MC nephritic disease in adults?

membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN)

27

What is the MC renal disease in blacks/Hispanics?

FSGN

28

What is the MC renal disease in HIV/IV drug users?

FSGN

29

What is the MC renal mass?

cyst

30

What is the MC malignant renal tumor in adults?

adenocarcinoma

31

What is the MC malignant renal tumor in kids?

Wilm's tumor

32

What nephrotic syndrome can progress to RPGN?

Goodpastures

33

What is the MC nephrotic syndrome in kids?

miminal change disease

34

What is seen in Type I Renal Tubular Acidosis?

metabolic acidosis
distal collecting duct H/K exchange defect
hypokalemia
high urine pH
frequent UTIs
stones

35

What is seen in Type II Renal Tubular Acidosis?

no carbonic anhydrase in PCT
hgh urine pH early but low late (b/c use up bicarb)

36

Which part of nephron concentrates urine?

medulla

37

What is Goldblatt's kidney?

contralateral flea-bitten kidney

38

What is uremia?

azotemia + symptoms

39

What is azotemia?

renal failure (inc BUN/Cr)

40

What is seen in post strep glomerulonephritis?

subepithelial humps
IgG/C3/C4 deposition
ASO Ab

41

What is seen in interstitial nephritis?

urine eosinophils (drugs), toxins

42

what is seen in lupus nephritis?

glomerular destruction
subeptihelial immune complex deposition
anti-ds-DNA

43

What is seen in membranoglomerulonephritis?

deposition

44

What is membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis?

tram tracking (type II has low C3)

45

What is seen in minimal change disease?

fused foot processes
no renal failure
loss of charge barrier

46

What is the most common cause of kidney stones?

dehydration

47

what type of kidney stones have coffin-lid crystals?

triple phosphate

48

What type of kidney stones have rosette crystals?

uric acid

49

What type of kidney stones have hexagonal crystals?

cysteine

50

What type of kidney stones envelop or dumbbell-shaped crystals?

calcium oxalate

51

what disease has aniridia?

Wilm's tumor

52

What is phimosis?

foreskin scarred to head of penis

53

What is paraphimosis?

foreskin retracted and scarred to base of penis
risk of strangulation

54

What is urge incontinence?

overactive detrusor muscle
small bladder volume

55

What is stress incontinence?

weak UG diaphragm muscles
estrogen connection

56

What is overflow incontinence?

cannot fully empty

57

What structures have a one way valves?

urethra and ejaculatory duct

58

What has WBC casts?

nephritis

59

What has WBC casts only?

pylonephritis

60

What has WBC cast + eosinophils?

interstitial nephritis (allergies)

61

What has WBC casts + RBC casts?

glomerulonephritis

62

What has fat casts?

nephrotic syndrome

63

What has waxy casts?

chronic renal disease

64

What has tubular casts?

RTA

65

What has hyaline casts?

normal

66

What has epithelial cells?

normal

67

What has crescents?

RPGN

68

How do you measure afferent renal function?

creatinine or inulin

69

How do you measure efferent renal function?

BUN or PAH

70

How do you test afferent renal function?

GFR or inulin

71

How do you test efferent renal function?

RPF or PAH

72

What is post-renal failure?

obstruction

73

What is the job of proximal convoluted tubule?

reabsorb 60-80% of everything filtered

74

What is the job of the thick descending limb?

reabsorb water

75

What is the job of the thick ascending limb?

make concentration gradient by reabsorbing solutes (Na, Cl, K, Mg, Ca) without water

76

What is the job of the early distal tubule?

concentrate urine by reabsorbing NaCl(hypotonic)

77

What is the job of the late distal tubule and collecting duct?

concentrate urine by reabsorbing water
excretion of uric acid
make new bicarb

78

What does macula densa do?

measures osmolarity in beginning of DCT

79

What does JG apparatus do?

measure volume

80

What is Fanconi's syndrome?

old tetracycline use destroys PCT
phosphates, glucose, and amino acids in urine

81

What is Bartter's syndrome?

baby with defective triple transporter
dec Na, Cl, and K
normal Bp

82

What is psychogenic polydipsia?

dilute urine due to excess water intake

83

What is central pontine myelinosis?

due to correcting Na faster than 0.5 mEg/hr