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Flashcards in Cell Physio Deck (132):
1

3 exceptions to the water out, fat in rule

ChannelsPoresTransmembrane proteins

2

RDA for fats, carbs, proteins

Fat = 30% (9cal/g)Proteins = 30% (4 cal/g)Carbohydrates = 40% (4cal/g)

3

7 functions of a cell membrane

Provide structureTransport (Motility)Active transportHeat/temp regulation Maintain gradientDepolarization Signal transduction

4

Membrane transportation in a cell

Phagocytosis

5

Bringing something into a cell

Endocytosis

6

Removing something from a cell

Exocytosis

7

Bring water into a cell

Pinocytosis

8

Two things required for cellular transport

ATP and Actin

9

Most important substance that is endocytosed

Nutrition

10

Most important substance that is exocytosed

Waste

11

Most important waste product produced by cells

Lipofuscin (brown pigment)

12

Most important factor in the movement of particles

Concentration gradient

13

How do you concentrate any substance in the body?

ATPase

14

Secondary active transport

Going with concentration gradient using another substance's gradient

15

Most common gradient used for secondary active transport

Na+

16

Fat soluble and steroid hormone receptors

Have nuclear membrane receptors (except cortisol)Readily cross the membrane

17

How do nuclear receptors work?

Stimulate the nucleus to perform DNA replication, transcription, translation into proteins by which they manifest their actions

18

How to differentiate between one fat soluble hormone and another?

By the proteins they make

19

Factors affecting transportation of water-soluble compounds

SizeChargepH Surface areaMembrane thicknessFluxReflection coefficient Fick's law

20

How do ions cross membranes?

Channels

21

How do medium-sized particles cross membranes?

Pores

22

How do larger molecules cross membranes?

Transport proteins

23

How the body gets rid of heat

Vasodilate

24

How the body keeps heat

Vasoconstricts

25

Most important substance transported through pores

Sweat (NaCl and water)

26

Hormones that have cell membrane receptors

Non-steroid hormones

27

Most common extracellular cations/anions

Sodium/Chloride

28

Most common intracellular cations/anions

Potassium/Proteins

29

Tissues best at depolarizing

Neuronal and Purkinje fibers

30

Type of hormones that have second messengers

Water-soluble (protein)

31

Location of protein hormone receptors

Cell membrane

32

Reflection coefficient for protein hormones

Close to 1

33

6 classes of second messengers

cAMPcGMPIP3/DAGCa2+Tyrosine KinaseNitric Oxide

34

Action of cAMP

2nd messenger for sympathetics

35

Action of cGMP

2nd messenger for parasympathetics

36

Action of IP3/DAG

2nd messenger for all hypothalamic hormone (except CRH)All SM contraction by hormone or NT

37

Action of Ca2+ as a second messenger

Stimulates Gastrin

38

Action of tyrosine kinase

2nd messenger for insulin and all GF

39

Action of nitric oxide

2nd messenger for nitrates

40

MC second messenger system

cAMP

41

Hormones activated by phosphorylation

Catabolic

42

Hormones activated by dephosphorylation

Anabolic

43

Enzyme that breaks down cAMP

Phosphodiesterase

44

Inhibits phosphodiesterase

Caffeine Theophylline

45

Bacteria that ADP-ribosylates Gs subunit of the G-protein

ETEC Vibrio

46

Bacteria that ADP-ribosylates Gi subunit of the G-protein

Pertussis

47

Bacteria that ADP-ribosylates EF2

Diphtheria Pseudomonas

48

Action of nitric oxide

Increases cGMP

49

2nd messenger systems enhanced by increase Ca2+

IP3/DAGCa2+/CalmodulinCa2+

50

Hypertensive medications that vaso & veno dilate

Nitrates ACE inhibitors

51

Substances that use nitric oxide as second messenger

ANPEndotoxinViagra (Sildenafil)All nitrates

52

Nitrate used to TX cyanide poisoning

Amyl nitrate

53

Nitrate given IV or S/L for chest pain

Nitroglyceine

54

Nitrate used to TX HTN crisis

Sodium nitroprusside

55

Function of SER

Detoxification and steroid synthesis

56

Function of RER

Makes proteins for packaging

57

Function of Free Ribosomes

Makes proteins for cytoplasm

58

Function of Lysosome

Degradation of waste

59

Function of Golgi

Post-translational modifications of proteins

60

Function of Mitochondria

Makes energy

61

Function of Nucleus

Contains all genetic information

62

Function of Nucleolus

Produces Ribosomal RNA

63

Damage to these organelles is irreversible

NucleusMitochondriaLysosomes

64

Organ that uses SER for detoxification

Kidney

65

Organ that uses SER for steroid synthesis

Liver

66

Form of proteins when they start off

Pre-Pro-Protein

67

Only protein fully modified in the RER

Collagen

68

Where all proteins fully modified

Golgi

69

Tissues with the most SER

Liver and Kidney

70

Substances lysosomes have a lot of

Acid hydrolases

71

What do acid hydrolases do to the pH of lysosomes?

Decrease pH --> makes it acidic

72

Structure formed when lysosome phagocytoses something

Phagosome of a phagolysosome

73

Component of TB that prevents phagocytosis

Cord factor

74

Ion that damages lysosome by coating their surface

Ca2+

75

Damage to lysosomes cause...

Acid hydrolases leak out and damage the nucleus (DNAse and RNAse)

76

Most important primary active transport system

Sodium ATPase (3 Na+ out, 2 K+ in)

77

Most important secondary active transport system

Na/Ca2+ exchanger (3 Na+ out, 2 Ca2+ in)

78

Transport system used to makes the cell more negative

Na+/K+ ATPase

79

Transport system used to makes the cell more positive

Na+/Ca2+ exchanger

80

Lysosomal inclusion body is an indication of?

Missing enzyme Inability to digest the substance

81

Parent that transmits mitochondrial DNA

Mother

82

Outcome of all chromosomal abnormalities

They all die

83

Monosomy that doesn't die

Turner's

84

Major concept behind all monosomies

If they don't die, things won't grow

85

Trisomy 13 and presentation

PatauHigh arched palatePolydactyly Die shortly after birth

86

Trisomy 18 and presentation

Edward's Rockerbottom feetDie shortly after birth

87

Trisomy 21 and presenation

DownsMRCongenital heart defectsHypothyroidismCancer (ALL)Early onset Alzheimer's Simian creaseMongolian slantWidely spaced 1st and 2nd toe

88

MC cyanotic heart disease in Down's

Tetralogy of Fallot

89

MC and most frequent cancer in Down's

MC = ALL (MC in kids overall)Frequent = AML

90

3 types of nuclear damage

Pyknosis (blebs)Karyohexis (fragments)Karyolysis (dissolves)

91

Coagulative Necrosis

D/t ischemia Architecture preserved

92

Liquefactive Necrosis

Half solid, half liquidNo maintenance of architecture Brain

93

Hemorrhagic Necrosis

Organs with soft capsule or more than one blood supply

94

Caseous Necrosis

CheesyTB

95

Fat Necrosis

Pancreas d/t chronic pancreatitisBreast d/t blunt trauma

96

Purulent Necrosis

Pus d/t bacteria (PMN)

97

Granulomatous Necrosis

GranulomasT-cells and macrophagesNon-bacteria

98

Fibrinous Necrosis

Collagen vascular diseaseUremiaTB

99

MCC Necrosis

Ischemia leading to coagulative necrosis

100

Substances that stop the Na+/K+ pump

Digitalis

101

Normal resting potential for cells

-90

102

How the body maintains stroke volume during hypovolemic shock

Constricting veins and venules

103

Epithelium in the aorta

Stratified squamous

104

Calcification of the aortic arch d/t age and trauma

Monckeberg calcification

105

Gives veins and venules the ability to have such great compliance

Elastin

106

Occurs to the aorta d/t age

Calcification

107

Affect of calcification of the aorta on BP and PP

BP and PP increase

108

TX of HTN in elderly

Ca2+ channel blockers

109

Vasodilators of the brain

Increase pCO2Decrease pO2

110

Vasodilators of the cardiovascular system

Adenosine

111

Vasodilators of the lung

Increased pO2

112

Vasodilators of muscle

Increased pCO2Decreased pH

113

Vasodilators of GI system

Food (fat)

114

Vasodilators of skin

Increased temperatureIncreased pCO2

115

Vasodilators of the renal system

D2 receptorsProstaglandinsANP

116

Pathology of sick sinus syndrome in the elderly

Carotid sinus is calcified so it does not respond

117

Mechanism responsible for immediate BP regulation

Carotid reflex

118

Mechanism responsible for intermediate BP regulation

NE (alpha-1 receptors then beta-1 receptors)

119

Mechanism responsible for long term BP regulation

Kidney

120

Most potent vasoconstrictor in the body

Angiotensin II

121

2 most important actions of Angiotensin II

VasoconstrictionStimulates Aldosterone release

122

TX for HTN in HF

ACE inhibitors

123

Heart block with a fixed lengthening of PRI

1st degree

124

Heart block with a normal PRI and erratic loss of QRS

2nd degree (Mobitz 2)

125

Heart block with AV dissociation

3rd degree

126

Heart block with a gradual lengthening or PRI and erratic loss of QRS

2nd degree (Mobitz 1)

127

Frameshift Mutation

+/- 1 or 2 bases

128

Silent Mutation

Makes same protein

129

Missense Mutation

Makes a different protein

130

Nonsense Mutation

Stop codon

131

Transition Mutation

Pur --> Pur

132

Transversion Mutation

Pur --> Pyr