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Flashcards in Cardio Deck (75):
1

Organs with resistance in series

Liver and Kidney

2

Organs with resistance in parallel

Everything but liver and kidney

3

Organ with highest AV-O2 difference at rest

Heart

4

Organ with highest AV-O2 difference after exercise

Muscle

5

Organ with highest AV-O2 difference after a meal

GI

6

Organ with highest AV-O2 difference during an exam

Brain

7

Organ with the lowest AV-O2 difference

Kidney

8

Type A thoracic aortic dissection

Ascending aortaAssociated with cystic medial necrosis and syphilis

9

Type B thoracic aortic dissection

Descending aortaAssociated with trauma and atherosclerosis

10

Layers of a true aortic aneurysm

Intima, media, adventicia

11

Layers of a pseudo aortic aneurysm

Intima and media

12

Pulse Pressure

Systolic - Diastolic

13

Vessel with thickest layer of SM

Aorta

14

Vessels with the most SM

Arterioles

15

Vessels with the largest cross sectional area

Capillaries

16

Vessel with the highest compliance

Aorta

17

Vessels with the highest capacitance

Veins and venules

18

Max HR

220 - age

19

Stable Angina

Pain on exertionAssociated with atherosclerosis

20

Unstable Angina

Pain at restAssociated with transient clots

21

Prinzmetal Angina

Intermittent pain at restAssociated with coronary artery spasm

22

Stain to see Amyloidosis

Congo Red - apple green birefringence

23

Hemochomatosis

Iron deposition in organsHyperpigmentation, arthritis, DM

24

Cardiac Tamponade

Pressure equalized in all 4 chambersQuiet precordiumNo pulse or BPKussmaul's signPulsus paradoxus (decreased systolic pressure > 10mmHg on inspiration)

25

Transudate

Effusion of mostly water1 = Too much water (HF and renal failure)2 = Not enough protein (cirrhosis and nephrotic syndrome)

26

Exudate

Effusion of mostly protein Purulent = bacteriaHemorrhagic = trauma, cancer, PEFibrinous = collagen vascular disease, uremia, TBGranulomatous = non-bacterial

27

Systole

Ventricular contactionDecrease in blood flow to the coronary arteriesIncreased O2 extraction

28

Diastole

Ventricular relaxationIncrease in blood flow to coronary arteriesDecreased O2 extraction

29

Only arteries with deoxygenated blood

Pulmonary and Umbilical

30

Murmur with Waterhammer Pulse

Aortic Regurgitation

31

Murmur with Pulsus Tardus

Aortic Stenosis

32

Cardiomyopathy with Pulsus Alternans

Dilated Cardiomyopathy

33

Disease with Pulsus Bigeminus

IHSS/HOCM

34

Murmur with irregularly irregular pulse

AFib

35

Murmur with regularly irregular pulse

PVCs

36

Murmur radiates to carotids

Aortic

37

Murmur radiates to axilla

Mitral

38

Murmur radiates to back

Pulmonary

39

Boot shaped XR

RVH

40

Banana shaped XR

IHSS/HOCM

41

Egg shaped XR

Transposition of the Great Arteries

42

Snowman shaped XR

TAPVR

43

3 shaped XR

Coarctation of aorta

44

Osler Weber Rendu

AVM in lung, gut, CNSSequester platelets leading to telangiectasias

45

Von Hippel Lindau

AVM in head and retinaIncreased risk of renal carcinoma

46

When valves make noise

When they close

47

Valves that make noise at the start of systole

M and T (S1)

48

Murmurs that occur during systole

Holo/pansystolic = MR, TR, VSDEjection = AS, PS

49

Valves that make noise at the start of diastole

Blowing = AR, PRRumbling = MS, TS

50

Continuous Bruit

PDA and AVM

51

Friction rub while breathing

Pleuritis

52

Friction rub while holding breath

Pericarditis

53

Mid-Systolic Click

MVP

54

Ejection Click

AS, PS

55

Opening Snap

MS, TS

56

S2 Splitting

Normal on inspiration Pulmonic valve closes later

57

Wide S2 Split

Increased O2Increased RV volumeDelayed PV opening RBBB

58

Fixed, Wide S2 Split

ASD

59

Paradoxical S2 Split

Aortic StenosisLBBBAortic valve closes after Pulmonic

60

Cor Pulmonale

Pulmonary HTN --> RV failure

61

Eisenmenger's

Pulmonary HTN --> reversal of L to R shunt to R to L shunt

62

Transposition of Great Arteries

Aorticopulmonary septum did not spiral

63

Tetralogy of Fallot

Overriding aortaPSRVHVSD

64

Truncus Arteriosus

Spiral membrane didn't develop (NC origin)One A/P trunk (mixed blood)

65

Epstein's Anomaly

Tricuspid valve sits low --> large RA Teratogenic effects of Lithium

66

Cinchonism

Hearing lossTinitus Thrombocytopenia

67

Cyanotic Heart Diseases

Transposition of Great ArteriesTetralogy of FallotTruncus Arteriosus Tricuspid/Aortic/Pulmonic AtresiaTAPVRHypoplastic Left Heart syndromeEpstein's Anomaly

68

Machine-like Murmur

PDAAVM

69

Heart Block Clues

Pain or Fever with a normal HR (HR should increase by 10 for every degree increase)

70

Ion important for P-wave

Ca2+

71

Ion important for QRS

Na+

72

Ion important for T-wave

K+

73

Ion important for U-wave

K+

74

MC non-cyanotic congenital heart disease

VSDASDPDACoarctation of Aorta

75

MI Enzymes (Appear, Peak, Disappear)

Troponin I (2 hrs, 2 days, 7 days)CKMB (6 hrs, 12 hrs, 2 days)LDH (1 day, 2 days, 3 days)