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Flashcards in GI Deck (125):
1

Corkscrew XR

Esophageal spasm

2

Apple core XR

Cancer

3

Stacked coin XR

Intussusception

4

Abrupt cutoff in XR

Volvulus

5

Bird's beak XR

Achalasia

6

String sign on XR

Pyloric Stenosis

7

Causes of Solid Dysphagia

Schatzki's RingsStricturesCancer

8

Schatzki's Rings

LEW

9

Causes of Liquid Dysphagia

SclerodermaAchalasiaEsophageal spasm

10

Barrett's Esophagus

MetaplasiaIncreased risk of adenocarcinoma

11

Esophageal Varicies

d/t Portal HTNVomit blood when they rupture

12

Mallory-Weiss

Chronic vomitersTear at LES mucosa

13

Boorhave's Esophagus

Transmural rupture of the esophagus

14

Achalasia

Increased LES pressureDecreased peristalsisLoss of LES Auerbach's plexus Bird's beak on XR

15

Hirschsprung's

Congenital lack of Auerbach's in the rectumNewborn won't pass meconium

16

Zenker's Diverticulum

Above UESCough undigested foodHalitosis

17

Traction Diverticulum

Below UES

18

Plummer-Vinson Syndrome

UEWSpoon nailsd/t Iron deficiency anemia

19

TE Fistula (H-type)

Choke with each feeding

20

Esophageal Atresia with TE Fistula (C-type)

Vomit with 1st feedingHuge gastric bubble

21

Duodenal Atresia

Bilious vomiting with 1st feedingDouble bubbleDown's Syndrome

22

Pyloric Stenosis

Projectile (non-bilious) vomiting RUQ olive sign

23

Choanal Atresia

Turns blue with feeding

24

Sclerodema

Decreased LES pressure

25

Esophageal Spasms

Increased peristalsis

26

RUQ Olive mass

Pyloric Stenosis

27

RLQ Sausage mass

Intussusception

28

Bezoar

Mass of undigestable materialAntrum obstruction

29

Type A Gastritis

AIAnti-parietal cell AbAtrophic/AchlorhydriaAdenocarcinoma risk

30

Type B Gastritis

H. pyloriSpicy food

31

Duodenal Ulcer

Loss of barrierPain after meal and during nightRelieved by eating (weight gain)Associated with H. pylori and Type O blood

32

Gastric Ulcer

Loss of barrierPain during mealsAssociated with NSAIDs and Type A blood

33

Sliding Hiatal Hernia

Fundus slides through esophageal hiatus into thorax

34

Rolling Hiatal Hernia

Bowel protrudes through defect in diaphragmStrangulates bowel

35

Menetrier's Disease

Lose protein through thick rugal folds (generalized edema)

36

Constipation

37

Diarrhea

> 200g per day

38

Osmotic diarrhea

Watery

39

Cause of secretory diarrhea

Laxative use

40

Inflammatory

Blood and pus

41

Celiac Sprue

JejunumWheat allergyVillous atrophyAnti-gluten/gliaden Ab

42

Tropical Sprue

Distal ileum

43

Mesenteric Ischemia

Pain out of proportion to exam

44

Bugs that cause bloody diarrhea

CASESCampylobacterAmeoba (E. histolytica)ShigellaE. coliSalmonella

45

Cholangitis

Inflammation of Bile Duct

46

Charcot's Triad

JaundiceFeverRUQ Pain

47

Reynold's Pentad

JaundiceFeverRUQ Pain(+) Hypotension(+) Change in mental status

48

Ascending Cholangitis

Common bile duct infection d/t stone

49

Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

p-ANCABile duct inflammationBeadingAssociated with UC

50

Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

Anti-mitochondrial AbBile ductules destroyedXanthelasma

51

Cholestasis

Obstruction of bile ductPruritis Increased alkaline phosphataseJaundice

52

Cholecystitis

Inflammation of gall bladderMurphy sign

53

Cholelithiasis

Formation of gallstonesRUQ pain

54

Choledocholithiasis

Gallstone obstructs bile duct

55

MC Gallstone

Cholesterol

56

Conjugated Bilirubin

Water solubleDirect

57

Unconjugated Bilirubin

Fat solubleIndirect

58

Signs of Alcoholic Cirrhosis

Spider angiomaPalmar erythemaGynecomastia

59

Hepatorenal Syndrome

Build up of liver toxins causing renal failure

60

Xanthoma

Cholesterol build up in tendons

61

High Cholesterol causes

Atherosclerosis

62

Xanthelasma

Triglyceride buildup under eye

63

High Triglycerides cause

Pancreatitis

64

Type 1 Hyperlipidemia

Bad LPL (liver)High Chylomicrons

65

Type 2A Hyperlipidemia

MCBad Clathrin Pit/B100 receptorsHigh LDL

66

Type 2B Hyperlipidemia

Fewer LDL/VLDL receptorsHigh LDL and VLDL

67

Type 3 Hyperlipidemia

Bad ApoEHigh IDL and VLDL

68

Type 4 Hyperlipidemia

Bad LPL (adipose)High VLDL

69

Type 5 Hyperlipidemia

Bad C2High VLDL and Chylomicrons Associated with DM

70

Chylomicrons

Takes triglycerides from GI to liver and endothelium

71

VLDL

Takes triglycerides from liver to adipose

72

IDL

Takes triglycerides from adipose to tissue

73

LDL

Only one to carry cholesterol

74

Breakdown product of VLDL

IDL and LDL

75

Crigler-Najjar Type I

Unconjugated bilirubin buildup in infants

76

Gilbert's Syndrome

Stress leads to uncreased unconjugated bilirubinIncreased load saturates glucuronyl transferaseDeficiency in UDP-glucuronyl transferase

77

Rotor's

Bad bilirubin storage leads to increased conjugated bilirubin

78

Dubin Johnson

Bad bilirubin excretion leads to increased conjugated bilirubin Black liver

79

Cullen's Sign

Hemorrhagic pancreatitisBleeding around umbilicus

80

Turner's Sign

Hemorrhagic pancreatitisBleeding into flank

81

Tests for Pancreatitis

Amylase (sensitive) - breaks down carbsLipase (specific) - breaks down triglycerides

82

Ranson's Criteria

Prognosis of pancreatitis

83

Carcinoid Syndrome

FlushingWheezingDiarrhea

84

How to DX Carcinoid Syndrome

5HIAA in the urine

85

MC primary location for Carcinoid Tumor

Appendix

86

MC metastatic origin for Carcinoid Tumor

Small bowel

87

MC metastatic sites for Carcinoid Tumor

Lung and Heart

88

MC location for benign Carcinoid Tumor

Appendix

89

Currant Jelly Sputum

Klebsiella

90

Currant Jelly Stool

Intussusception

91

Familial Polyposis

100% risk of colon cancer APC defectBegin colonoscopies at age 5

92

Gardener's Syndrome

Familial polyposis with bone tumors

93

Turbot's Syndrome

Familial polyposis with brain tumors

94

Peutz-Jegher Syndrome

Hyperpigmented mucosa

95

Chron's Disease

IBD with:CobblestonesMelenaCreeping fatFistulas

96

Ulcerative Colitis

IBD with:PseudopolypsHematocheziaLead pipe colonToxic megacolon

97

Intussusception

Current jelly stoolStacked coin on XR

98

Diverticulosis presentation

Bleeds (painless)

99

Diverticulitis presentation

LLQ pain

100

Spastic Colon presentation

Intermittent severe cramps

101

IBS presentation

Alternating diarrhea/constipation with HX of stress

102

External Hemorrhoids presentation

Pain on defecation

103

Internal Hemorrhoids presentation

No pain

104

Pesudomembranous Colitis

Overgrowth of C. difficile d/t normal flora being killed off d/t over use of antibiotics

105

Whipple's Disease

T. whippelii destroys GI tract then spreads causing malabsorption and arthralgiasPAS (+)

106

Color of Upper GI Bleed

Brown

107

Color of Lower GI Bleed

Red

108

Adds color to stool

Stercobilinogen oxidized to stercobilin

109

Add color to urine

Urobilinogen oxidized to urobilin

110

Default color of stool

Clay colored

111

Default color of urine

Tea colored

112

Risk Factors for Primary Liver Cancer

Hep B and CAflatoxinVinyl ChlorideAlcoholCCl4Anyline dyesSmokingHemochomatosisBenzeneSchistosomiasis

113

Risk Factors for Esophageal and Gastric Carcinoma

SmokingAlcoholNitratesJapanese

114

Cause of Gastroenteritis within 8 hours of eating

Pre-formed toxin:S. aureus (potato salad)C. perfringens (turkey/ham)B. cerus (fried rice)

115

Bacteria associated with Colon Cancer

S. bovisC. malangosepticus

116

Hepatitis B labs during Window period

HBeAb (+)HBcAb (+)

117

Hepatitis B labs during acute recent infection

HBcAg (+)HBsAg (+)HBcAB (+)

118

Hepatitis B labs within 2 weeks of immunization

HBsAg (+)

119

Hepatitis B labs after more than 2 weeks of immunization

HBsAb (+)

120

Hepatitis B labs of somebody with a previous infection who is now immune

HBcAb (+)HBsAb (+)

121

Hepatitis B labs of somebody who is currently infectious

HBeAg (+)

122

Hepatitis B labs of a chronic carrier

HBsAg (+) for > 6 months

123

Only Statin that is renaly excreted

Preavastatin

124

Statins that need liver enzymes checked every 3 months

AtorvastatinLovastatinSimvastatin

125

MoA of Statins

Inhibit HMG CoA reductaseMost active around 8PM (take at this time for maximum efficacy)