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Flashcards in Vitamins Deck (65):
1

What is the name of vitamin A?

retinoic acid

2

What does vitamin A do?

night vision
CSF production
PTH cofactor

3

What does a deficiency in vitamin A cause?

poor night vision
hypoparathyroidism

4

What is the name of vitamin B1?

thiamine

5

What does vitamin B1 do?

cofactor for dehydrogenases and transketolase

6

What does a deficiency in vitamin B1 cause?

beriberi
Wernicke's encephalopathy
Werncke-Korsakoff syndrome

7

What is the name of vitamin B2?

riboflavin

8

What does vitamin B2 do?

FAD cofactor

9

What does a deficiency in vitamin B2 cause?

angular cheilosis

10

What is a source of vitamin B2?

milk

11

What breaks down vitamin B2?

sunlight

12

What is the name of vitamin B3?

niacin

13

What does vitamin B3 do?

NAD cofactor

14

What does a deficiency in vitamin B3 cause?

Pellagra
diarrhea
dermatitis
dementia
death

15

What disease looks like pellagra?

Hartnup's

16

What cannot be transported in Hartnup?

tryptophan

17

What is the name of vitamin B4?

lipoic acid

18

What does vitamin B4 do?

glycolysis

19

What does a deficiency in vitamin B4 cause?

no deficiency state

20

What is the name of vitamin B5?

pantothenic acid

21

What does a deficiency in vitamin B5 cause?

no deficiency state

22

What is the name of vitamin B6?

pyridoxine

23

What does vitamin B6 do?

transaminase cofactor
myelin integrity

24

What does a deficiency in vitamin B6 cause?

neuropathy

25

What is the name of vitamin B9?

folate

26

What does vitamin B9 do?

cofactor for HMT and MMM

27

What does deficiency in vitamin B9 cause?

megaloblastic anemia
hypersegmented neutrophils
neural tube defects

28

What is the name of vitamin B12?

cyanocobalamin

29

What does a deficiency in vitamin B12 cause?

megaloblastic anemia
hypersegmented neutrophils
neuropathy

30

What does vitamin C do?

collagen synthesis- proline and lysine hydroxylation

31

What does a deficiency in vitamin C cause?

scurvy

32

What does vitamin D do?

mineralization of bones and teeth

33

What does a deficiency in vitamin D cause?

rickets (children)
osteomalacia (adults)

34

What does a deficiency in vitamin E cause?

increased free radical damage

35

What does vitamin K do?

clotting

36

What does a deficiency in vitamin K cause?

loss of gamma-carboxylation
bleeding

37

What does biotin do?

carboxylation

38

What does a deficiency in biotin cause?

loss of carboxylase function

39

What does calcium do?

neuronal function
atrial depolarization
smooth muscle contractility

40

What does a deficiency in calcium cause?

poor bone and teeth development

41

What does copper do?

collagen synthesis

42

What does a deficiency in copper cause?

Minky Kinky Hair Syndrome

43

What does iron do?

Hb function
electron transport

44

What does a deficiency in iron cause?

anemia

45

What is bronze pigmentation?

Fe deposit in skin

46

What is bronze cirrhosis?

Fe deposit in liver

47

What is bronze diabetes?

Fe deposit in pancreas

48

What is hemosiderosis?

Fe overload in bone marrow

49

What does magnesium do?

PTH and kinase cofactor

50

What does a deficiency in magnesium cause?

loss of kinase function
hypoparathyroidism

51

What does zinc do?

taste buds
hair
sperm function

52

What does a deficiency in zinc cause?

dysgeusia
anosmia
poor wound healing

53

What does cromium do?

insulin function

54

What does a deficiency in cromium cause?

diabetes

55

What does molybdenum do?

purine breakdown (xanthine oxidase)

56

What does a deficiency in molybdenum do?

loss of xanthine oxidase function

57

What does manganese do?

glycolysis

58

What does a deficiency in manganese cause?

loss of xanthine oxidase function

59

What does selenium do?

heart function
dilated cardiomyopathy

60

What does a deficiency in selenium cause?

dilated cardiomyopathy

61

What does tin do?

hair

62

What does a deficiency in tin do?

poor hair growth

63

What does a deficiency in fluoride cause?

poor teeth and bone development

64

What is kwashiorkor?

malabsorption
big bell (ascites)
protein deficiency

65

What is marasmus?

starvation
skinny
calorie deficiency