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Anatomy & Physiology > Blood > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood Deck (139):
0

Blood being a connective tissue is made up of what

Matrix
Cells

1

What is the matrix composed of

Ground substances + fibers

2

The liquid in the matrix is?

Plasma

3

Blood being a connective tissue is mainly _____

Cellular

4

What cells makes up blood

Red blood cells
White blood cells
Platelets

5

What are the functions of blood (3)

Transport
Regulation
Defense

6

What catogories does blood regulate?

Body temperature
Water balance in cell
pH balance

7

Bloods function as defense. What does it defense against?

Against pathogens
Blood clotting

8

Blood is a suspension of formed elements in plasma? True or false

True

9

What composes blood

Plasma and formed elements

10

Formed elements is compossed of?

Platelets
Leukocytes
Erythrocytes

11

What are the proteins in plasma?

Albumins

Globulins

Fibrinogen

12

What composes plasma

Proteins
Water and other solutes

13

Other solutes in plasma include...

Ions
Nutrients
Waste products
Gases
Regulatory substances

14

Leukocytes include

Neutrophils
Lymphocytes
Monocytes
Eosinophils
Basophils

15

The percent of blood volume depends on____&_____

Species & hydration

16

Plasma is what color

Yellow

17

Why is plasma yellow

Due to bilirubin

18

Why should one without food before a blood sample

Because of postprandial lipemia
And is cloudy

19

What is the serum

Plasma - clotting factors

20

How do u isolate serum from whole blood?

Allow blood to clot
Centrifuge
Supernatant

21

Can serum be frozen for future use?

Yes

22

Why can't whole blood the frozen

The cells ( white + red ) would lyse when frozen

23

How many pathways makeup the classic blood coagulation pathway

3

24

What are the three classic blood coagulating pathways

Intrinsic

Extrinsic

Common

25

In the common pathway of the 3 blood coagulating pathway, what is the first pathway?

Prothrombin -> thrombin

26

In the common pathway of bloc coagulation what is the second pathway

Fibrinogen-> fibrin-> stable fibrin

27

_______ are used to prevent blood clotting?

Anticoagulants

28

What is an anticoagulant?

Substance that blocks one of the clotting factors in pathway.

29

Name three anticoagulants

EDTA

HEPARIN

WARFARIN

30

how does EDTA work as a anticoagulant?

It binds ca++

31

When heparin is used in a lab, what is the color of the top of the vial?

Lavender

32

Which anticoagulant occures naturally?

Heparin

33

Haparin is naturally occurring by?

Mast cells

34

Heparin is used to prevent

Thrombosis

Embolism

35

Which anticoagulant was use as a rat poison but now used medically as an oral anticoagulant?

Warfarin

36

Blood plasma is how much % of whole blood

55%

37

Leukocytes and thrombocytes is how much percent of whole blood

1%

38

Erythrocytes are how much percent of whole blood?

45%

39

What is also known as the "Buffy coat"

Leukocytes and thrombocytes

40

Which cells are complete cells?

WBCs

41

Which cells have no nuclei or most other organelles?

RBCs

42

What are platelets?

Cell fragments

43

How long do formed elements survive in blood?

Few days

44

Which cells are the exception for surviving in the blood stream longer than a few days?

Some WBCs

45

Where do most blood cells originate in and do not divide?

Red bone marrow

46

Which cell is the exception to originate in the red bone marrow and not divide

Some WBCs

47

What is hematopoiesis?

Formation of blood cells

48

What is the formation of blood cells called?

Hematopoiesis

49

Hematopoiesis is a ______ process

Continual

50

The correct word for red blood cell

Erythrocyte

51

Red blood cell production is called?

Erythropoiesis

52

Erythropoiesis begins with a ______ into A _____

Stem cell into a erythrocyte

53

What are the three phases of the development pathway of erythropoiesis

Phase 1 : ribosome synthesis
Phase 2 : hemoglobin accumulation
Phase 3 : ejection of nucleus

54

In phase 1: ribosome synthesis what is the erythrocyte called

Basephillic erythroblast

55

In phase 2 of erythropoiesis, what is the erythrocyte called?

Orthochromatic erythroblast

56

In stage 2-3 of erythropoiesis what is the erythrocyte called?

Orthorchromatic erythroblast

57

In erythropoiesis what is the name when hemoglobulin production begins?

Polychromasia

58

Polychromasia is defined by having a ___

Lavender cytoplasm

59

What does high polychromatic signify?

Don't know

60

What is the hormone for erythropoiesis?

Erythropoietin (EPO)

61

What does the hormone erythropoiesis do?

Stimulate erythropoiesis

62

There is always a small about of which hormone in the blood

Erythropoietin

63

What will cause erythropoietin to depress production

High RBC or O2 levels

64

Where is erythropoietin released by?

Kidney

65

Erythropoietin is released by the kidneys in response to_____

Hypoxia

66

What is hypoxia?

Deficientcy in the amount of oxygen reaching the tissues

67

What are the causes for hypoxia?

- Decreased RBC numbers due to hemorrhage or increased destruction
- insufficient hemoglobin per RBC ( iron deficiency)
- reduced availability of O2 (ex: high altitudes)

68

What is hemopoiesis and where does it occure?

The production of blood cells and platelets, which occures in the bone marrow

69

Where does hematopoiesis occure in early fetus

Liver and spleen

70

During hematopoiesis as the fetus ages what happens to the red bone marrow

Becomes more predominant

71

As the animal ages the red bone marrow....

Is reduced to epiphysis and replaced by yellow marrow in diaphysis

72

In adults what has limited hematopoiesis function

Liver and spleen

73

Erythrocytes are....(physical)

Anucleated

Biconcave disks

No mitochondria

74

Why are erythrocytes anucleated?

For more space for hemoglobin

75

Why are erythrocytes shaped like a bi concave disk?

- Higher surface area to transport gases across membrane

- for flexibility to be able to squeeze through small capillaries

76

Why don't erythrocytes have a mitochondria

Because they are involved in anaerobic reapiration (do not use O2 it is transporting)

77

How do RBCs get their energy?

Don't know

78

Cell size and central pallow of a erythrocyte vary by ______

Species

79

In an erythrocyte what is present in non mammalian species?

Nucleus

80

Hemoglobin composes how much of a cell?

35%

81

What is hemoglobin compossed of?

Globular proteins (4 polypeptides) + heme groups (containing iron)

82

In hemoglobin oxygen reversible binds to ____

Iron

83

How many oxygens can each hemoglobin carry

4

84

There's about 250 million Hb/ RBC

True

85

What carries by size which carries by species

Hemoglobin

86

Animals with ____ cells tends to have more RBCs

Smaller

87

What are the 3 type of hemoglobin?

Embryonic hemoglobin

Fetal hemoglobin

Adult hemoglobin

88

O2 loading in lungs produced which kind of hemoglobin

Oxyhemoglobin

89

What color is oxyhemoglobin

Ruby red

90

Hb + O2 = Hbo2

Oxyhemoglobin

91

O2 u loading tissue is considered which hemoglobin?

Deoxyhemoglobin

92

What color is deoxyhemoglobin?

Dark red

93

CO2 loading tissues involves what?

20% of CO2 in blood binding to Hb

94

______animals tend to have longer lived RBCs

Larger

95

Senesce means?

Age

96

What happens when cells senesce

They become rounder with less surface area and get trapped in the spleen

97

Most cells are _____ by macrophages

Phagocytozed

98

Where are cells Phagocytozed by macrophages?

In spleen and blood vessels

99

As cell age they are replaced by young cells from _________

Red bone marrow

100

Heme and glob in proteins are ______ separated as cell ages

Separated

101

What happens to globin when cell ages

It is metabolized into amino acids

102

The animoacids from globin when the cell ages is sent where to do what

Send to liver for the production of new proteins

103

Where is iron salvaged for reuse?

Red bone marrow

104

Heme degrades into what?

Bilirubin

105

Where is bilirubin sent do to what?

Liver to be used in bile to be decreased in SI

106

What happens if the liver is unable to process all the bilirubin

It collect in tissue causing jaundice

107

What is anemia

Is it a erythrocyte disorder where blood has abormally low O2 carrying capacity

108

What accompanies anemia

Fatigue
Paleness

109

Low levels of o2 cannot ______

Support metabolism

110

Causes of anemia (3)

1- blood loss
2- decreased erythropoiesis example ( radiation for cancer)
3- decreased hemoglobin production ( iron deficiency)

111

Polycythemia

An erythrocyte disorder with abnormally high number of RBCs

112

What are the thee type of polycythemia

Relative polycythemia

Compensatory polycythemia

Polycethemia ruba vera

113

What is relative polycythemia?

Hemoconcenteation (loss of plasma) due to dehydration

114

What is compensatory polycythemia

Increased erythropoiesis due to hypoxia

115

What is polycythemia ruba Vera

Rare bone marrow disorder

116

If you are dehydrated what kinda of polycythemia will u have

Relative polycythemia

117

If u have increased erythropoiesis which polycythemia do u have

Compensatory polycythemia

118

Of u have a rare bone marrow disease, which polycythemia will u have

Polycythemia ruba Vera

119

How can u determine the amount of cells in blood

Manually count
Hematocrit

120

Platelets are

Thrombocytes

121

What are thrombocytes?

Fragments of larger cells

122

What is megakaryocytes

Fragments of larger cells

123

What are the function of thrombocytes?

Reduce petechial hemorrhaging

For temporary platelet plug

124

Thrombocytes contain.

Clotting factors for coagulation

125

Leukocytes are nucleated or unnucleated?

Nucleated!

126

How much do Leukocytes make up of total blood volume?

1%

127

What is leukocytosis

Increased WBCs

128

What is leukocytopenia

Decreased WBCs

129

What do Leukocytes do?

Defense against pathogens

130

What do Leukocytes do to capillaries?

Leave them leaky due to histamines to travel into tissues

131

Leukocytes are decided into 2 major catogories?

Agranulocytes

Granulocytes

132

What is the difference between granulocytes and agranulocyes?

Granules = have a visible cyoplasmis granules.


Agranulocyes = no visible granules

133

What are the three granulocytes?

Neutrophils

Eosinophils

Basophils

134

What are the 2 agranulocytes?

Lymphocytes

Monocytes

135

Monocytes are considered?

Macrophages

136

Lymphocytes are

B cells
T cells
Natural killer cells

137

Granulocytes are _____ and ____ lived than RBCs

Larger

Shorter

138

Granulocytes have a lobed nuclei. Another word for this is

Polymorphonuclear