Flashcards in Blood Deck (139):
Blood being a connective tissue is made up of what
What is the matrix composed of
Ground substances + fibers
The liquid in the matrix is?
Blood being a connective tissue is mainly _____
What cells makes up blood
Red blood cells
White blood cells
What are the functions of blood (3)
What catogories does blood regulate?
Water balance in cell
Bloods function as defense. What does it defense against?
Blood is a suspension of formed elements in plasma? True or false
What composes blood
Plasma and formed elements
Formed elements is compossed of?
What are the proteins in plasma?
What composes plasma
Water and other solutes
Other solutes in plasma include...
The percent of blood volume depends on____&_____
Species & hydration
Plasma is what color
Why is plasma yellow
Due to bilirubin
Why should one without food before a blood sample
Because of postprandial lipemia
And is cloudy
What is the serum
Plasma - clotting factors
How do u isolate serum from whole blood?
Allow blood to clot
Can serum be frozen for future use?
Why can't whole blood the frozen
The cells ( white + red ) would lyse when frozen
How many pathways makeup the classic blood coagulation pathway
What are the three classic blood coagulating pathways
In the common pathway of the 3 blood coagulating pathway, what is the first pathway?
Prothrombin -> thrombin
In the common pathway of bloc coagulation what is the second pathway
Fibrinogen-> fibrin-> stable fibrin
_______ are used to prevent blood clotting?
What is an anticoagulant?
Substance that blocks one of the clotting factors in pathway.
Name three anticoagulants
how does EDTA work as a anticoagulant?
It binds ca++
When heparin is used in a lab, what is the color of the top of the vial?
Which anticoagulant occures naturally?
Haparin is naturally occurring by?
Heparin is used to prevent
Which anticoagulant was use as a rat poison but now used medically as an oral anticoagulant?
Blood plasma is how much % of whole blood
Leukocytes and thrombocytes is how much percent of whole blood
Erythrocytes are how much percent of whole blood?
What is also known as the "Buffy coat"
Leukocytes and thrombocytes
Which cells are complete cells?
Which cells have no nuclei or most other organelles?
What are platelets?
How long do formed elements survive in blood?
Which cells are the exception for surviving in the blood stream longer than a few days?
Where do most blood cells originate in and do not divide?
Red bone marrow
Which cell is the exception to originate in the red bone marrow and not divide
What is hematopoiesis?
Formation of blood cells
What is the formation of blood cells called?
Hematopoiesis is a ______ process
The correct word for red blood cell
Red blood cell production is called?
Erythropoiesis begins with a ______ into A _____
Stem cell into a erythrocyte
What are the three phases of the development pathway of erythropoiesis
Phase 1 : ribosome synthesis
Phase 2 : hemoglobin accumulation
Phase 3 : ejection of nucleus
In phase 1: ribosome synthesis what is the erythrocyte called
In phase 2 of erythropoiesis, what is the erythrocyte called?
In stage 2-3 of erythropoiesis what is the erythrocyte called?
In erythropoiesis what is the name when hemoglobulin production begins?
Polychromasia is defined by having a ___
What does high polychromatic signify?
What is the hormone for erythropoiesis?
What does the hormone erythropoiesis do?
There is always a small about of which hormone in the blood
What will cause erythropoietin to depress production
High RBC or O2 levels
Where is erythropoietin released by?
Erythropoietin is released by the kidneys in response to_____
What is hypoxia?
Deficientcy in the amount of oxygen reaching the tissues
What are the causes for hypoxia?
- Decreased RBC numbers due to hemorrhage or increased destruction
- insufficient hemoglobin per RBC ( iron deficiency)
- reduced availability of O2 (ex: high altitudes)
What is hemopoiesis and where does it occure?
The production of blood cells and platelets, which occures in the bone marrow
Where does hematopoiesis occure in early fetus
Liver and spleen
During hematopoiesis as the fetus ages what happens to the red bone marrow
Becomes more predominant
As the animal ages the red bone marrow....
Is reduced to epiphysis and replaced by yellow marrow in diaphysis
In adults what has limited hematopoiesis function
Liver and spleen
Why are erythrocytes anucleated?
For more space for hemoglobin
Why are erythrocytes shaped like a bi concave disk?
- Higher surface area to transport gases across membrane
- for flexibility to be able to squeeze through small capillaries
Why don't erythrocytes have a mitochondria
Because they are involved in anaerobic reapiration (do not use O2 it is transporting)
How do RBCs get their energy?
Cell size and central pallow of a erythrocyte vary by ______
In an erythrocyte what is present in non mammalian species?
Hemoglobin composes how much of a cell?
What is hemoglobin compossed of?
Globular proteins (4 polypeptides) + heme groups (containing iron)
In hemoglobin oxygen reversible binds to ____
How many oxygens can each hemoglobin carry
There's about 250 million Hb/ RBC
What carries by size which carries by species
Animals with ____ cells tends to have more RBCs
What are the 3 type of hemoglobin?
O2 loading in lungs produced which kind of hemoglobin
What color is oxyhemoglobin
Hb + O2 = Hbo2
O2 u loading tissue is considered which hemoglobin?
What color is deoxyhemoglobin?
CO2 loading tissues involves what?
20% of CO2 in blood binding to Hb
______animals tend to have longer lived RBCs
What happens when cells senesce
They become rounder with less surface area and get trapped in the spleen
Most cells are _____ by macrophages
Where are cells Phagocytozed by macrophages?
In spleen and blood vessels
As cell age they are replaced by young cells from _________
Red bone marrow
Heme and glob in proteins are ______ separated as cell ages
What happens to globin when cell ages
It is metabolized into amino acids
The animoacids from globin when the cell ages is sent where to do what
Send to liver for the production of new proteins
Where is iron salvaged for reuse?
Red bone marrow
Heme degrades into what?
Where is bilirubin sent do to what?
Liver to be used in bile to be decreased in SI
What happens if the liver is unable to process all the bilirubin
It collect in tissue causing jaundice
What is anemia
Is it a erythrocyte disorder where blood has abormally low O2 carrying capacity
What accompanies anemia
Low levels of o2 cannot ______
Causes of anemia (3)
1- blood loss
2- decreased erythropoiesis example ( radiation for cancer)
3- decreased hemoglobin production ( iron deficiency)
An erythrocyte disorder with abnormally high number of RBCs
What are the thee type of polycythemia
Polycethemia ruba vera
What is relative polycythemia?
Hemoconcenteation (loss of plasma) due to dehydration
What is compensatory polycythemia
Increased erythropoiesis due to hypoxia
What is polycythemia ruba Vera
Rare bone marrow disorder
If you are dehydrated what kinda of polycythemia will u have
If u have increased erythropoiesis which polycythemia do u have
Of u have a rare bone marrow disease, which polycythemia will u have
Polycythemia ruba Vera
How can u determine the amount of cells in blood
What are thrombocytes?
Fragments of larger cells
What is megakaryocytes
Fragments of larger cells
What are the function of thrombocytes?
Reduce petechial hemorrhaging
For temporary platelet plug
Clotting factors for coagulation
Leukocytes are nucleated or unnucleated?
How much do Leukocytes make up of total blood volume?
What is leukocytosis
What is leukocytopenia
What do Leukocytes do?
Defense against pathogens
What do Leukocytes do to capillaries?
Leave them leaky due to histamines to travel into tissues
Leukocytes are decided into 2 major catogories?
What is the difference between granulocytes and agranulocyes?
Granules = have a visible cyoplasmis granules.
Agranulocyes = no visible granules
What are the three granulocytes?
What are the 2 agranulocytes?
Monocytes are considered?
Natural killer cells
Granulocytes are _____ and ____ lived than RBCs