Flashcards in Cadiovascular System Deck (116):
Location of the heart in the body? (Cavity)
The heart location in the thoaracic cavity in the _______ (interpleural space)
The heart is located between...
Area between the lungs and on top of the diaphragm
The heart is not located within...
The pleural membrane
Where is the heart located for dogs and cats?
Between the 3rd n 7th rib
Where is the heart located for horses and ruminant
Between the 2nd n 6th rib
Which later covers the epicardium?
The pericadium is composed of what three layers
Fibrous outer layer
Double serous layer
The myocardium is under which layer
The myocardium is what...
Where is the endocardium
Under the myocardium
Name the layers from outside to inside
What is the name is the abnormal acclimation of serous fluid between visceral & parietal layers
In pericardium effusion why can't the heart fully expand during contractions?
Because the fibrous layer is not elastic
How is pericadium effusion fixed?
By relieving the pressure by aspiration of the serous fluid
What are the causes of pericadium effusion
Veins carries blood ___ the heart
Arteries carries blood ___ from the heart
Veins are (oxygenated or deoxygenated)?
Arteries are ( deoxygenated/ oxygenated)
What is the exclusion of a vein that is oxygenated
Pulmonary vein and umbilical vessels of fetus
What system supplies the heart with blood
Where is the coronary system
Located on external surface of the heart
Which system can the coronary system be part of
What do valves in the heart do
Prevent back flow
Veins prevent what?
The pulmonary circulation is the blood flow between the ____ and ____
Heart and lungs
What are the auricles?
Flaps of atria
The inter ventricular groove is on which part?
Howany auricals are there?
2, for each atrium
Where are the 2 semicircular valves located?
Aortic valve, pulmonary valve
Where are the chordae tendinae?
On the tricuspid (rav) valve, bicuspid (lav) valve
Why do semi circular valves lack cordea tendinea?
The blood is falling through
In a dog the apex curves_____? (Which direction?)
On a dog the tricuspid valve is best ausculated on which side of the body?
Lumen of blood vessels are
Central blood containing space
Blood vessels have how many layers?
What are the three layers of blood vessels?
What kind of endothelium do blood vessels contain
What is another words for "layers" in the walls of arteries and veins
Arteries are under ____blood pressure
Which have thicker walls which have more elastic fibers & smooth muscle
Which blood vessels are under lower pressure
What helps prevent back flow?
Valves, skeletal muscles help push blood
Except where are capillaries found?
cornea of eye
Lens of eye
What are poorly vascularized
Ligaments and tendons
What are the fictions of capillaries? (5)
Exchange of gases
What do capillaries provide
Direct asses to almost every cell
The placenta serves as what?
It's an organ of gas, nutrient, waste exchange.
In fetal circulation the blood flow to the kidney & lungs from the GI tract is _____
Minimal, because of the placenta
The umbilical cord.
The veins carry ______ blood
Veins in the umbilical corn carry oxygenated blood from _____ to ______
Placenta to fetus
Via ________ is oxygenated blood carried from placenta to fetus
Arteries carries _____ blood from fetus to placenta
How can blood entering the RA bypass the lungs, (fetal circulation)
What problem is associated with a vessel that does not close after birth
= patent ductus ateriosus
In PDA was is inadequate?
PDA is a problem that is most common in
Most commen congenital heart problem in dogs
What are the clinical signs of PDA
Shortness of breath
How is PDA diagnosed?
With auscultation, distinct murmur
How is PDA treated
Close the ductus ateriosus
What congenital condition causes mega esophagus?
Persostant right aortic arch
How does PRATT happend?
During development a fetus has 2 aortic arches. The left on forms the aorta. If the right one forms the aorta
= PRATT, the esophagus is contracted between the liaent ateriosus and the aorta. This causes megaesophagus
The constriction between ______ and _____ causes megaesophagus
Ateriousum and aorta
Diastole is preriod of______
Systole is a period of ______
The contraction of aria is called
What happens in atrial systol
Blood moves from atria to ventricals
What is it called when ventricals contract
What happends in ventrical systole
Blood moves from ventricals to arteries
What is the name for the relaxation of ventricals
What happends in ventricular diastole
Ventricles begin the refill with blood
What is the name when the atria relax
What happends in atrial diastole
Atria refill with blood
Concerning blood, diastole ____ blood
Either atria of ventrical
Concerning blood, systole_____ blood
What is the name for when blood moves from ventrical to arteries
What is the name for when ventricals begin to refill with blood
What is the name for when blood moves from atria to ventricals
What is the name for when atria refil with blood
Using _____ can assessed heart sounds
Lub is which "s"
Lub = s1 is the....
Closing of the AV valves
Mitral valve is best hear on which side
Tricuspid valve is best heard on which side
Dub is which "s"
Dub = s2 is the....
Closing of the semilunar valves
Pulmonary and aortic valves are best heard in which side
S3 involves the....
Rapid filling of the ventricals
S3 and s4 are in heard in which animals
Closing of AV valves =
Rapid filling ventricals =
Closing of semilunar valves =
Cardiac muscle is able to....
Generate it's own electrical impulse to signal contraction
The SA node signals what
Initiates heart to beat by depolorization
What's another word for node
The initiation of the heart to beat by depolarizing the cell is by the___
The SA node initiates heart beat by ___________
Depolarizing the cells
Depolarization continues ______ heart
What does the p wave represent
What does the QRS wave represent
What does the T wave represent
Where is the SA node located
At the junction of the vena cave and right atrium
Where is the AV node located?
Near the tricuspid valve
What is the flow of depolarization of the heart.
SA node ➡️ AV node➡️ AV bundles➡️ purkinje fibers
Where are the purkinje located
Explain cardiac output
It's the amount of blood that leaves the heart
CO = _______ + ________
Heart rate (hr) + stroke volume (sv)
What does the heart rate depend on for depolarization
Rate of SA node
What influences cardiac output (3)
Autonomic nervous system