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Flashcards in Cadiovascular System Deck (116):
0

Location of the heart in the body? (Cavity)

Thoracic cavity

1

The heart location in the thoaracic cavity in the _______ (interpleural space)

Mediastinum

2

The heart is located between...

Area between the lungs and on top of the diaphragm

3

The heart is not located within...

The pleural membrane

4

Blood transports

Nutrients
Wastes
Gases
Hormonones (antibodies)
Cells

5

Where is the heart located for dogs and cats?

Between the 3rd n 7th rib

6

Where is the heart located for horses and ruminant

Between the 2nd n 6th rib

7

Which later covers the epicardium?

Pericardium

8

The pericadium is composed of what three layers

Fibrous outer layer
Double serous layer

9

The myocardium is under which layer

Epicardium

10

The myocardium is what...

Cardiac muscle

11

Where is the endocardium

Under the myocardium

12

Name the layers from outside to inside

Pericadium
Epicardium
Myocardium
Endocardium

13

What is the name is the abnormal acclimation of serous fluid between visceral & parietal layers

Pericardium effusion

14

In pericardium effusion why can't the heart fully expand during contractions?

Because the fibrous layer is not elastic

15

How is pericadium effusion fixed?

By relieving the pressure by aspiration of the serous fluid

16

What are the causes of pericadium effusion

Inflammation/ infection

17

Veins carries blood ___ the heart

To

18

Arteries carries blood ___ from the heart

Away

19

Veins are (oxygenated or deoxygenated)?

Deoxygenated

20

Arteries are ( deoxygenated/ oxygenated)

Oxygenated

21

What is the exclusion of a vein that is oxygenated

Pulmonary vein and umbilical vessels of fetus

22

What system supplies the heart with blood

Coronary system

23

Where is the coronary system

Located on external surface of the heart

24

Which system can the coronary system be part of

Systemic circulation

25

What do valves in the heart do

Prevent back flow

26

Veins prevent what?

Back flow

27

The pulmonary circulation is the blood flow between the ____ and ____

Heart and lungs

28

Systole

Cardiac contraction

29

Diastole

cardiac relaxation

30

What are the auricles?

Flaps of atria

31

The inter ventricular groove is on which part?

Left ventrical

32

Howany auricals are there?

2, for each atrium

33

Where are the 2 semicircular valves located?

Aortic valve, pulmonary valve

34

Where are the chordae tendinae?

On the tricuspid (rav) valve, bicuspid (lav) valve

35

Why do semi circular valves lack cordea tendinea?

Less pressure

The blood is falling through

36

In a dog the apex curves_____? (Which direction?)

Caudally

37

On a dog the tricuspid valve is best ausculated on which side of the body?

Right

38

Lumen of blood vessels are

Central blood containing space

39

Blood vessels have how many layers?

Three

40

What are the three layers of blood vessels?

Smooth muscle
Connective tissue
Endothelium

41

What kind of endothelium do blood vessels contain

Simple squamous

42

What is another words for "layers" in the walls of arteries and veins

Tunics

43

Arteries are under ____blood pressure

High

44

Which have thicker walls which have more elastic fibers & smooth muscle

Arteries

45

Which blood vessels are under lower pressure

Veins

46

What helps prevent back flow?

Valves, skeletal muscles help push blood

47

Except where are capillaries found?

Cartilage
Epithelia
cornea of eye
Lens of eye

48

What are poorly vascularized

Ligaments and tendons

49

What are the fictions of capillaries? (5)

Exchange of gases
Nutrients
Wastes
Hormones
Defense

50

What do capillaries provide

Direct asses to almost every cell

51

The placenta serves as what?

It's an organ of gas, nutrient, waste exchange.

52

In fetal circulation the blood flow to the kidney & lungs from the GI tract is _____

Minimal, because of the placenta

53

The umbilical cord.
The veins carry ______ blood

Oxygenated blood

54

Veins in the umbilical corn carry oxygenated blood from _____ to ______

Placenta to fetus

55

Via ________ is oxygenated blood carried from placenta to fetus

Ductus venosus

56

Arteries carries _____ blood from fetus to placenta

Deoxygenated

57

How can blood entering the RA bypass the lungs, (fetal circulation)

Foramen ovale
And
Ductus ateriosus

58

What problem is associated with a vessel that does not close after birth

PDA
= patent ductus ateriosus

59

In PDA was is inadequate?

Oxygenation

60

PDA is a problem that is most common in

Most commen congenital heart problem in dogs

61

What are the clinical signs of PDA

Shortness of breath
Coughing
General weakness
Excessive intolerance

62

How is PDA diagnosed?

With auscultation, distinct murmur
ECG

63

How is PDA treated

Close the ductus ateriosus

64

What congenital condition causes mega esophagus?

PRAA
Persostant right aortic arch

65

How does PRATT happend?

During development a fetus has 2 aortic arches. The left on forms the aorta. If the right one forms the aorta
= PRATT, the esophagus is contracted between the liaent ateriosus and the aorta. This causes megaesophagus

66

The constriction between ______ and _____ causes megaesophagus

Ateriousum and aorta

67

Diastole is preriod of______

Relaxation

68

Systole is a period of ______

Contractions

69

The contraction of aria is called

Atrial systole

70

What happens in atrial systol

Blood moves from atria to ventricals

71

What is it called when ventricals contract

Ventrical systole

72

What happends in ventrical systole

Blood moves from ventricals to arteries

73

What is the name for the relaxation of ventricals

Ventricular diastole

74

What happends in ventricular diastole

Ventricles begin the refill with blood

75

What is the name when the atria relax

Atrial diastole

76

What happends in atrial diastole

Atria refill with blood

77

Concerning blood, diastole ____ blood

refills
Either atria of ventrical

78

Concerning blood, systole_____ blood

Moves blood

79

What is the name for when blood moves from ventrical to arteries

Ventricular systole

80

What is the name for when ventricals begin to refill with blood

Ventricular diastole

81

What is the name for when blood moves from atria to ventricals

Atria systole

82

What is the name for when atria refil with blood

Atrial diastole

83

Using _____ can assessed heart sounds

Auscultation

84

Lub is which "s"

S1

85

Lub = s1 is the....

Closing of the AV valves

86

Mitral valve is best hear on which side

Left

87

Tricuspid valve is best heard on which side

Right

88

Dub is which "s"

S2

89

Dub = s2 is the....

Closing of the semilunar valves

90

Pulmonary and aortic valves are best heard in which side

Left side

91

S3 involves the....

Rapid filling of the ventricals

92

S4 involves

Atrial systole

93

S3 and s4 are in heard in which animals

Large animals

94

Closing of AV valves =

Lub s1

95

Rapid filling ventricals =

S3

96

Closing of semilunar valves =

Dub s2

97

Atrial systole

S4

98

Cardiac muscle is able to....

Generate it's own electrical impulse to signal contraction

99

The SA node signals what

Initiates heart to beat by depolorization

100

What's another word for node

Pacemaker

101

The initiation of the heart to beat by depolarizing the cell is by the___

Sa node

102

The SA node initiates heart beat by ___________

Depolarizing the cells

103

Depolarization continues ______ heart

Throughout

104

What does the p wave represent

Atrial depolarization

105

What does the QRS wave represent

Ventricular depolarization

106

What does the T wave represent

Ventricular depolarization

107

Where is the SA node located

At the junction of the vena cave and right atrium

108

Where is the AV node located?

Near the tricuspid valve

109

What is the flow of depolarization of the heart.

SA node ➡️ AV node➡️ AV bundles➡️ purkinje fibers

110

Where are the purkinje located

Apex

111

Explain cardiac output

It's the amount of blood that leaves the heart

112

CO = _______ + ________

Heart rate (hr) + stroke volume (sv)

113

What does the heart rate depend on for depolarization

Rate of SA node

114

What influences cardiac output (3)

Exercise
Autonomic nervous system
Blood pressure

115

Where are the three sites of venipicture

Femoral vein
Saphenouc vein
Jugular vein
Cephalon vein
Coccygeal vein