Chapter 4 - Tissues Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Tissues Deck (163):
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What are the four types of tissues?

epithelial tissue
connective tissue
muscle tissue
nervous tissue

1

What is the function of epithelial tissue?

It covers and lines

2

What is the function of connective tissue?

It provides support

3

What is the function of muscle tissue?

It enables movement

4

What is the function of nervous tissue?

Controls work

5

What is gross anatomy?

The study of anatomical structures that can be seen with the naked eye includes learning the names and locations of bones, muscles, arteries, veins, and nerves

6

What is histology?

The study of tissues

7

What is microanatomy?

The study of anatomical structures that can be seen with the use of microscope

8

What is unique about a unicellular organism?

It can feed itself, respire, grow and produce or find all of the biochemical substances that it needs without the assistance of other cells

9

What are tissues?

Cells of similar type and function that are clustered into layers, sheets, or groups

10

What is a general function of epithelial tissue

It is protective of underlying tissues and frequently acts as a filter of biochemical substances as well as being absorptive. It also secretes biochemical substances

11

What are glandular epithelia?

Epithelia that engage in the manufacturing and release of substances

12

Where are goblet cells found and what are they an example of

Glandular epithelial cells

13

What are the two ways glandular epithelial cells can occur

As individuals or as organized glands

14

Give an example of some substances that are produced by glandular epithelia

Hormones, enzymes, milk, sweat

15

What are excretions

Substances that ultimately leave the body ie. sweat, urine, feces

16

What are secretions

Substances that remain within the body

17

What are the six functions of epithelia

Protects, covers, lines
Filters biochemical substances
Absorbs nutrients
Provides sensory input
Manufactures secretions
Manufactures excretions

18

What are the four general characteristics of epithelia

1. epithelial cells are polar
2. epithelial cells have lateral surfaces that are connected to neighboring cells by junctional complexes.
3. all epithelial cells lack blood vessels or capillaries.
4. most epithelial cells are innervated and provide valuable sensory input

19

What does polar mean

They have a sense of direction relative to surrounding structures

20

What is an apical surface

The apical surface is the side of the cell that faces the lumen or body cavity

21

What is a basal surface

This side of the cell that faces the underlying connective tissue

22

What does avascular mean

Lacking blood vessels or capillaries

23

What does innervated mean

Containing nerves

24

What are the three major types of cellular junctions found between epithelial cells

Tight junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions

25

What is a tight junction

It is formed by the fusion of the outermost layers of the plasma membranes of adjoining cells

26

Where are tight junctions found

Tight junctions are found in tissues in which there can be no leaks.
for example: urinary bladder, digestive tract

27

What is a desmosome

A strong welded plaque or thickening which connects the plasma membranes of adjacent cells

28

What is plaque

A thickening

29

What is a hemidesmosome

Junctions that look like half of a desmosome

30

What are tonofilaments

Thin filaments that provide the structural support for certain membrane junctions. tonal filaments are especially important in tissue that needs to flex

31

Where are desmosomes commonly found

They are found most commonly in tissues that undergo repeated episodes of tension and stretching such as the skin, heart, uterus.

32

What are Connexons

Tubular channel proteins

33

What is a transmembrane protein

transmembrane proteins allows the exchange and passage of ions and nutrients such as nucleotides, sugars, amino acids from one cell to the other.

34

Where are gap junctions most commonly found

Gap junctions are most commonly found in intestinal epithelial cells, the heart, smooth muscle tissue

35

What is the function of gap junctions and what are they commonly known for

The function of gap junctions is to quickly transport electrical signals from one cell to another. They're commonly known for the contraction of cardiac and smooth muscle

36

What is a basement membrane

It is a non-living meshwork of fibers that cement the epithelial cells to the underlying connective tissue

37

What does the basement membrane protect the cell from

Being torn off by intraluminal pressures such as stretching or erosion

38

How are oxygen and nutrient molecules supplied to the epithelial cells

They are supplied to epithelial cells by diffusing through the basement membrane from Capillaries in the underlying connective tissue

39

What does the basement membrane act as

It acts as a partial barrier between epithelial cells and underlying connective tissue

40

What are microvilli

Fingerlike protrusions of the luminal surface of some epithelial membranes that increase the cells exposed surface area

41

What is a brush border

The surface of a cell covered with microvilli

42

When the surface area increases...

The absorptive ability increases

43

What cells do microvilli usually occur on

Cells involved in absorption or secretion such as ones in the intestinal and urinary tracts

44

What is Keratin

A tough waterproof proteins that makes scales, claws, feathers, nails, hair, horns, huffs

45

What are the three characteristics that are used to classify epithelial tissue

1. Number of layers of cells
2. Shape of cells
3. Presence of surface specializations

46

What are simple epithelia

Single layer of epithelial cells that provides little protection to underlying connective tissue

47

What are stratified epithelia

Containing many layers of cells thicker, stronger and found in areas of the body that are subjected to mechanical and chemical stress

48

What is cuboidal epithelium

Epithelium composed of cube shaped cells having centrally located nuclei

49

What is columnar epithelium

Epithelium composed of tall, thin, epithelial cells having nuclei located at their basal end and are often ciliated

50

What are squamous epithelium

Epithelium composed of flat, hexagonal cells

51

What is mesothelium

The epithelium that lines the pleural pericardial and peritoneal cavities

52

What two cells make up the gut lining

Absorptive cell, goblet cell

53

What is the function of a goblet cell

Manufacture and store lubricating mucus that is secreted onto the luminal surfaces of the epithelia

54

What are immunoglobulins

Disease fighting molecules that help to protect animals from pathogens that have been inhaled

55

What is a pathogen

Bacteria and viruses

56

What is transitional epithelium

Epithelium that can expand and contract thus enabling it to hold a good deal of volume

57

Where is transitional epithelium located

Portions of the urinary tract: urinary bladder, ureters, urethra and kidney

58

What is a gland

A cell or a group of cells that have the ability to manufacture and discharge secretion

59

What are secretions

Specialize protein molecules that are produced in the rough endoplasmic recticulum, packaged into granules by the Golgi apparatus, discharged from the cell

60

What are the six classifying characteristics of glands

1. Presence or absence of ducts (endocrine or exocrine)
2. Number of cells that compose them (unicellular and multicellular)
3. Shape of the secreting ducts (simple or compound)
4. Complexity of the glandular structure (tubular, acinar, tubuloacinar)
5. Type of secretion produced (mucoid or serous)
6. Manner in which the secretion is stored and discharged ( merocrine, apocrine, holocrine)

61

What are endocrine glands

Glands that do not have ducts or tubules and who secretions are distributed throughout the body

62

What are hormones

Regulatory chemicals

63

What are exocrine glands

Glands that possessed ducts

64

What is the function of the endocrine glands

Discharge secretions via their ducts directly into nearby areas where they may for example cover cell surfaces or empty into body cavities

65

Unlike endocrine glands, exocrine glands...

Act locally and do not normally enter the circulation

66

What is an example of a unicellular exocrine gland

The ductless goblet gland

67

What do goblet cells secrete

Mucin: thick, stringy mixture of glycoproteins and proteoglycans that when mixed with water becomes mucus

68

What are the two distinct components of a multicellular exocrine gland

Secretory unit in which secretions are produced by secretory cells and a duct that carries the secretion to the deposition site

69

What is a simple gland

An exocrine gland with unbranched ducts

70

What is a compound gland

An exocrine gland with branched ducts

71

What is a tubular Gland

Secretory unit of exocrine glands either containing or composed of tubules

72

What is an alveolar gland

A gland where the secretory unit forms a rounded sack

73

What are glands with secretary units that possess both tubular and alveolar qualities called

Tubuloacinar

74

What are merocrine glands

Glands who's secretions contain none of their own cells thus leaving the Glands cells intact.
example: saliva and sweat glands

75

What is an apocrine gland

Gland who secretions contain some of it's cellular material.

76

What is a holocrine gland

A gland who's granular secretions contain not only that secretory product but also the cells themselves

77

What is serous secretions

Watery, contain a high concentration of enzymes

78

What are mucous secretions

Thick, viscous, composed of glycoproteins

79

What are mixed endocrine glands

Glands that contain both mucous And serous components

80

What is mesoderm

The middle layer of fetal body tissue

81

What is adipose connective tissue

Vascular type of connective tissue who's general functions are to protect, insulate and provide a major source of energy to the body

82

What are extracellular fibers

The fibers of connective tissue located outside of the cells that perform a variety of functions depending on their degree of elasticity

83

What is the extracellular matrix

The mixture of fiber and ground substance

84

What are glycosaminoglycan's

Unbranched chains of glycoproteins

85

What are the three type of fibers connective tissue contains

Collagenous, recticular, Elastic

86

What are collagenous fibers

Strong, thick strands composed of the structural protein collagen

87

What are reticular fibers

Thin fibers composed of collagen

88

What are elastic fibers composed of

The protein Elastin

89

What is a fibroblast

Large, irregularly shaped cells that manufacture and secrete both fibers and ground substance characteristic of their particular matrix

90

What fixed cell does cartilage contain

ChondroblSt

91

What are reticular cells

Cells that are flat, star shaped with long, outreaching arms that touch other cells forming net like connections with the tissue they compose

92

What are leukocytes

White blood cells that move into connective tissue in large numbers during times of infection

93

What is diapedesis

The process by which white blood cells squeeze through walls of tiny blood vessels into the surrounding tissue

94

What are mast cells

Oval cells that are easily identified by the large number of dark staining granules Stored in the cytoplasm

95

What does histamine do

Histamine increases blood flow to the area by making capillaries leaky

96

What does heparin do

Prevents blood from clotting and ensures the pathways for increased bloodflow remain open

97

What are microphages

Masses irregularly shaped phagocytizing scavengers that may be either fixed or transient in connective tissue. They engulf microbes, dead cells and debris and subsequently digest them in the lysosomes

98

What are the two subclasses of connective tissue

Loose connective tissue and dense connective tissue

99

What does loose connective tissue contain

Areolar, adipose and reticular tissue

100

What does dense connective tissue contain

Dense regular, dense irregular, elastic tissue

101

What is Areolar connective tissue

Randomly placed fibers and cells suspended in a thick, translucent ground substance

102

What is adipose tissue

Fat

103

What are the two main types of adipose tissue

White adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue

104

Where is white adipose tissue found

Throughout the body in deep layers of skin

105

Where is brown adipose tissue found

It is found in newborn animals and animals that hibernate during the winter

106

What is reticular connective tissue composed of

Complex, three dimensional network of thin, reticular fibers

107

What is the stroma

A network which constitutes the framework of several organs

108

What is dense fibrous connective tissue characterized by

Densely packed arrangement of collagen fibers

109

What is dense regular connective tissue composed of

Tightly packed, parallel collagen fibers. The fibers lie in the direction of the force that is exerted on them, thereby giving the overall tissue tremendous strength but only in one direction

110

What is a Fascia

A structure that can withstand forces from more than one direction

111

What is elastic connective tissue

Dense connective tissue that is primarily composed of elastic fibers rather than collagen fibers

112

Where are simple tubular glands found

Stomach, intestines

113

Where are coiled tubular glands found

Sweat glands

114

Where are branched tubular glands found

Stomach, mouth, tongue

115

Where are simple aveolar glands found

Sebaceous glands

116

Where are branched aveolar glands found

Sebaceous glands

117

Where are compound tubular glands found

Bulbourethral glands, mammary glands, mucous glands

118

Where are compound aveolar glands found

Mammary glands

119

Where are compound tubuloalveolar glands found

Salivary gland, pancreas, respiratory passages

120

What is cartilage

Tough, specialized connective tissue that is commonly known as gristle

121

What is chondrocyte and where do they live

Cartilage cells, lives in hollowed out pockets in the matrix called lacunae

122

What is hyaline cartilage

Composed of closely packed collagen fibers that make it tough but more flexible than bone

123

What is articular cartilage

Cartilage at the ends of long bones and joints and connection ribs to the sternum

124

What is elastic cartilage

Similar to hyaline cartilage but contains more elastic fibers which form dense, branching bundles that appear black microscopically

125

What is fibrocartilage

Contains text bundles of collagen fibers like hyaline cartilage but has fewer chondrocytes and lacks a perichondrium

126

What is bone

Hardest and most rigid type of connective tissue

127

What does a Haversian canal contain

Both a vascular and a nerve supply

128

What do osteoblast do

Manufacture the fibers that are part of the matrix

129

What is blood

Red fluid that passes through vessels and that carries nutrient molecules and gases throughout the body

130

What are Erythrocytes

Red blood cells

131

What are leukocytes

White blood cells

132

What are thrombocytes

Platelets

133

What are three examples of loose connective tissue

Areolar, adipose, recticular

134

What are three examples of dense connective tissue

Dense regular, dense irregular, elastic

135

What are three examples of cartilage

Hyalin cartilage, elastic cartilage, fibrocartilage

136

What are two examples of bones

Compact, cancellous

137

What are the two broad categories of connective tissue

Loose connective tissue, dense connective tissue

138

What are serous membranes

Lined the walls and cover the organs that fill closed body cavities

139

What is the portion of the membrane that lines the cavity wall called

Parietal layer

140

What is the portion of the membrane that covers the outer surface of organs called

Visceral layer

141

What is a transudate

Thin fluid containing small amounts of protein or no protein that has been passed through membrane

142

What is a hemothorax

When blood cells and fluid leak from ruptured capillaries into the pleural space

143

What is a exudate

When cells, protein and other solid material mixed with serous fluid

144

What is effusion

When an abnormally large amount of fluid enters the body cavity

145

What is ascites

Fluid accumulation in the peritoneal cavity

146

What is pleuritis

Inflammation of the Pleura

147

What is pericarditis

Inflammation of the pericardial tissue

148

What is peritonitis

Inflammation of the peritoneum

149

What are. Adhesions

Abnormal connections between Parietal and visceral layers

150

What is a membrane

Epithelium plus connective tissues

151

What does it mean if a tissue is regular

It means that it is parallel

152

What do tendons do

Connect muscle to bones

153

What do ligaments do

Connect bone to bone

154

What do fascia do

Surrounds muscles

155

What does reticular mean

A network

156

What are two cell types in connective tissues

Fixed cells and wandering cells

157

What do fixed cells do and given example of it

Fixed cells remain in connective tissue and an example is fibroblast

158

What do osteoclasts do

Breaks down bone

159

What are wandering cells and give an example

Leave connective tissue as needed and microphages

160

What are the three components of connective tissue

1. cells
2. ground substance
3. fibers

161

What do endocrine glands to

Makes hormones

162

What do exocrine glands do

Make other things