Chapter 15 - Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy & Physiology > Chapter 15 - Endocrine System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 15 - Endocrine System Deck (141):
0

What are two examples of endocrine glands

Hypothalamus and pituitary gland

1

Do endocrine glands have ducts or are they ductless

Ductless

2

What do endocrine glands develop from

Epithelial cells

3

What is the function of endocrine glands

Produce and secrete hormones into blood

4

Where are the receptors found for the hormones produced by endocrine glands

Target cells

5

What is hormone release controlled by

Negative feedback or autonomic nervous system

6

Where is the hypothalamus located

Part of the Diencephalon

7

Which functions does the hypothalamus have endocrine or nervous

Both

8

What are the nervous functions of the hypothalamus

Regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst

9

What are the endocrine functions of the hypothalamus

Produces and secretes hormones that regulate the pituitary gland

10

How do hormones that are created in the hypothalamus make their way to the pituitary gland

Travels through the pituitary stock

11

How many hormones does the anterior portion of the pituitary gland produce and release

7 hormones

12

How many hormones does the posterior portion of the pituitary gland release. And where are they produced

It releases two hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus

13

What are the two hormones that are produced in the hypothalamus for the posterior pituitary gland

Oxytocin, anti-diuretic hormone

14

What is diuresis

Loss of large amounts of water

15

What is a nephron

Tubules of kidneys

16

What are the target cells of the antidiuretic hormone ADH

The nephrons of the kidneys

17

What is the action caused by the antidiuretic hormone

Stimulates water reabsorption by tubules

18

What triggers antidiuretic hormone to be produced

Dehydration. High osmotic pressure of blood detected by chemoreceptors in hypothalamus

19

What does ADH do to the urine

Causes urine to be more concentrated, darker color stronger older less volume

20

What is that release of ADH inhibited by

Diuretics such as caffeine or alcohol

21

What is diabetes insipidus caused by

Lack of ADH production by hypothalamus.
Or Lack of binding of adh receptors on tubules

22

If there is a lack of ADH production by hypothalamus what type of diabetes insipidus does it cause

Central diabetes insipidus

23

If there's a lack of binding of ADH to receptors on tubules what type of diabetes insipidus does this cause

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

24

What are the symptoms of diabetes insipidus

Polyurea and polydipsia

25

What are the challenges that owners face when they have an animal that has diabetes insipidus

Frequent litter box changes, walks, many accidents, constant access to water

26

What is the treatment for diabetes insipidus

Depends on the cause. No treatment is an option if owner tolerates polyuria and polydipsia

27

What is the hormone oxytocin do

Stimulates muscular contraction during birth. And stimulates injection of milk from glands into ducts

28

What are the target cells for oxytocin

Smooth muscle cells of uterus and mammary glands

29

What is a trigger for oxytocin to be produced and released

The stretching of cervix or the stimulation of nipples

30

What is oxytocin an example of

Positive feedback mechanism

31

What are synthetic forms of oxytocin used for

To induce labor in humans and other mammals

32

How does oxytocin cause milk letdown

Oxytocin triggers the contraction of myoepithelial cells forcing milk from the alveoli into the ducts

33

What is milk production controlled by

An anterior pituitary hormone called prolactin

34

Describe the relationship between the anterior pituitary gland and the hypothalamus

The hypothalamus produces and secretes releasing or inhibiting hormones which travel to the anterior pituitary.

35

What happens when the anterior pituitary gland is stimulate

It produces and releases tropic hormones which travel to target organs stimulating them to release their hormones

36

What are the seven hormones created by the anterior pituitary gland

Growth hormone
Prolactin
Thyroid stimulating hormone
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Follicle-stimulating hormone
Luteinizing hormone
Melanocyte stimulating hormone

37

What does a tropic hormone do

Stimulates release of other hormones

38

What does growth hormone do

Promotes growth and young animals. And regulates metabolism to promote growth (protein synthesis, hydrolysis of lipids and glycogen)

39

What is bovines somatotropin hormone used for

To extend milk production of cows

40

How is bovines somatotropin hormone produced

Mass produced by genetically engineered bacteria. Use of this hormone linked to increased mastitis foot reproductive and digestive problems. not legal in Canada

41

What does the hormone prolactin do

Triggers and maintains milk production. Production and release will cease if nursing or milking discontinues

42

What is a fresh cow

A cow that recently started lactating

43

What is the dry cow

The cow that is no longer lactating

44

What is the dry period

Time between drying off and birthing

45

What does the thyroid stimulating hormone do

Stimulates the growth and development of thyroid gland and production of thyroid hormones

46

What is the thyroid stimulating hormone production regulated by

The hypothalamus. High thyroid hormone levels negatively feedback on hypothalamus reducing its release of thyroid stimulating hormone releasing factor

47

What is the homeostasis of thyroid hormone production maintain bye

Interactions of hypothalamus, anterior pituitary and thyroid Glands

48

What does the adrenocorticotropic hormone. Do

Stimulates the growth and development of adrenal cortex and production of it's hormones

49

How is the ACTH production regulated

Regulated by negative feedback on anterior pituitary from adrenal cortex hormones such as Cortisone. It is also regulated by the hypothalamus via the ACTH releasing factor

50

What is the melanocyte stimulating hormone do

Associated with control of rapid color changes in various animals such as chameleons. Can cause increased pigmentation such as linea Nigra, the darkening of nipples in pregnant women and tanning

51

What does the follicle-stimulating hormone do in females

Stimulates growth and development of follicle cells and oocytes in ovary. Stimulates follicles to produce estrogen

52

What does the follicle-stimulating hormone do in males

Stimulate spermatogenesis in seminiferous tubule's of testes

53

How can one cow have five calves in one year

By superovulation, artificial insemination, Flushing, embryo transfer into percipient heifers

54

What does the luteinizing hormone do in female

Triggers ovulation. Promotes the formation of corpus luteum from remaining follicle. Corpus luteum makes progesterone which helps maintain pregnancy

55

What does luteinizing hormone do in males

Stimulates production of testosterone by interstital cells of testes

56

Where is the thyroid gland located

Located on ventral surface of trachea caudal to larynx. Shape varies between species

57

What is the thyroid gland activity located bye

Controlled by the thyroid stimulating hormone of the anterior pituitary gland

58

What is the thyroid gland composed of

Fluid filled follicles containing precursor hormones

59

What hormones are found in the thyroid gland

T3, triiodothyronine and t4 thyroxine

60

What is essential for the production of thyroid gland hormone

Iodine

61

How do both hormones function to control the metabolism

Assists in heat production, production of T3 and T4 increases with decreasing external temperature. Promotes protein synthesis, lipid and carbohydrate hydrolysis. Promotes growth and development in young animals

62

What are the three thyroid gland abnormalities

Hyperplasia, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism

63

What is goiter or hyperplasia

Enlarged thyroid gland

64

What is hyperplasia or goiter caused by

Iodine deficiency in diet. Low thyroid hormone levels cause increased release of thyroid stimulating hormone which promotes continued growth of thyroid gland. Noncancerous noninflammatory

65

What is hypothyroidism

Insufficient thyroid hormone production. More common in dogs than cats and more common in middle-aged animal

66

What is the cause of hypothyroidism

Thyroid gland atrophy, disease of hypothalamus or anterior pituitary

67

What are the clinical signs of hypothyroidism

Weight gain, alopecia, intolerance to cold, lethargic

68

What is the treatment of hypothyroidism

Thyroid hormone

69

What is hyperthyroidism

Excessive thyroid hormone production

70

What species is hyperthyroidism common in

Most common endocrine disorder and older cats but rare in dogs

71

What are the clinical signs of hyperthyroidism

Weight-loss, polyphagia, polyuria polydipsia tachycardia, aggressive, nervous, enlarged thyroid

72

What are the treatment options for hyperthyroidism

Surgery, radioactive iodine, antithyroid medication

73

What does the thyroid gland hormone calcitonin do

Produced by sea cells between thyroid follicles. Regulates blood calcium levels with parathyroid hormone

74

What are the target organs for the calcitonin thyroid hormone

Mainly bone. Osteoblasts form new bone

75

What is the hormone in the parathyroid glands

Parathyroid hormone

76

What are the parathyroid glands

Small nodular glands located near thyroid

77

What is the parathyroid hormone antagonistic to

The calcitonin hormone.

78

What does the parathyroid hormone do

Raises blood calcium levels, helps prevent hypocalcemia

79

What are the target organs for the parathyroid hormone

Boehm, kidney, intestines. Osteoclasts break down the bone, kidney nephron increase reabsorption and intestines increase calcium absorption

80

What is hypocalcemia

Low blood calcium level.

81

Where does hypocalcemia occurs

Occurs in lactating animals soon after birth, due to inability to mobilize calcium from bones fast enough

82

How does hypocalcemia affect the body

Affects skeletal muscle causes weakness tremors and ability to stand walk or seizures

83

What is the treatment for hypocalcemia

IV calcium solution. feeding calcium rich foods not recommended because it depresses the parathyroid hormone production

84

Where are the adrenal glands found

Located cranial to kidneys

85

What are the two glands located in the adrenal glands

Adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla

86

What is the adrenal cortex controlled by

ACTH hormone from anterior pituitary gland

87

What are the three types of steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex

Glucocorticoid hormones
Mineralocorticoid hormones
Sex hormones

88

What do glucocorticoid hormones do

Have a hyperglycemic effect and increase blood glucose levels. Promote catabolism of lipids, proteins in the process called gluconeogenesis. Also assists in maintenance of blood pressure and help resist effects of stress on the body

89

What is hyperadrenocorticism

More common in older dogs rare in cats. Called Cushing's syndrome. Overproduction of cortisol due to pituitary problems, adrenal tumors, overmedication of corticosteroids

90

What is the treatment for hyperadrenocorticism or Cushing's syndrome

Surgical removal of adrenal tumors, oral medication which blocks production of cortisol

91

What are the clinical signs of hyperadrenocorticism or Cushing's syndrome

Short-term polyuria polydipsia polyphagia excessive panting lethargic. Long-term bilateral symmetrical our peace, muscle atrophy, thin skin, reoccurring infections, slow wound healing, potbelly due to enlarged liver

92

What is equine Cushing's syndrome

Most common equine endocrines problem. More common in older horses due to hypertrophy and hyperplasia of anterior pituitary gland. Increased ACTH production and decreased dopamine production

93

What are the clinical signs of equines Cushing syndrome

Weight loss, muscle atrophy, shaggy non-shedding coat, lethargy, frequent laminitis

94

What is the treatment for equine Cushing's syndrome

Good management of diet feed and coat. Dopamine agonists

95

What are glucocorticoid like drugs commonly used for

There commonly used as anti-inflammatories because they mimic actions of Cortizone hormones given in much higher doses

96

What are the side effects of glucocorticosteroid drugs

Press immune system caused slow wound healing alter white blood cell counts cannibalism of proteins muscle atrophy hair thinning in loss suppressed adrenal cortex: Addison's disease

97

What is hypoadrenocorticism or Addison's disease

Deficiency of adrenocortical hormones. Common in older female dogs Rare in cats

98

What are the clinical signs of Addison's disease

Lethargic, depression, weakness, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, polyuria polydipsia and bradycardia

99

What is the treatment of Addison's disease

Oral corticosteroids such as prednisone

100

What are mineralocorticoid hormones

Regulate a lecture late levels in the blood. Also important in water levels and body. Target cells nephron cause reabsorption of sodium excretion of potassium and hydrogen ions

101

What are sex hormones

Androgens and estrogens. Both males and females produce all sex hormones but in small amounts. Most usually are insignificant but I'm normally high production could explain sexual behavior of neutered animals

102

In the adrenal Medela what type of cells making secrete hormones in the blood

Neuro secretory cells that are modified neurons

103

What hormones does the adrenal medulla make?

Epinephrine and norepinephrine. Controlled by sympathetic autonomic nervous system

104

What is it three hormones at the pancreas makes

Insulin, GlucaGen, somatostatin

105

What is insulin made by it and what is it do

Made by beta cells and lowers blood glucose levels

106

What is glucagon made by and what does it do

Made by alpha cells and raises blood glucose levels

107

What is somatostatin made by and what is it do

Somatostatin is made by Delta cells and it mildly inhibits actions of insulin GlucaGen growth hormone and also decreases digestive track activity

108

What is diabetes mellitus

I cells are unable to get glucose as they need it because it is in the blood. Cause by deficiency of insulin which is typed one insulin-dependent and dogs or lack of response to insulin type two non-insulin-dependent in cats the result is hyperglycemia and glycosuria

109

What are the symptoms of diabetes mellitus

Polydipsia polyurea polyphagia weight-loss weakness sudden cataracts dehydration

110

What is diabetes mellitus controlled by

Daily insulin injections and regulation of diet and exercise

111

What is equine metabolic syndrome

Insensitivity to insulin.

112

What are the predisposing factors to EMS

Obesity, some breeds, ponies donkeys Morgan's Pasofino's

113

What are horses that have EMS prone to

Laminitis and have abnormal amount of fat deposits

114

How do you manage ems

Exercise, eliminate sugars, so okay, grazing muzzles, small hole Hay nets to slow feeding

115

What are testicles composed of

Seminiferous tubule's. Site of spermatogenesis which is sperm production by meiosis

116

What are Leydig cells

Cells that are located between the tubules. Site of androgen production example testosterone

117

What is the production of testosterone stimulated by

The luteinizing hormone

118

What is testosterone responsible for

Development of secondary sexual characteristics such as increased size and muscle mass, increased sex drive, development of accessory reproductive glands

119

What is the use of anabolic steroids and horses for (therapeutic)

Increased appetite, increased muscle mass and tissue repair after injury or surgery, treatment for anemia, in prove stamina

120

What's hormones are produced in the ovaries

Estrogen and progesterone

121

What two hormones stimulate the production of ova and other hormones

FSH stimulates development of ovarian follicles and LH triggers ovulation stimulates development of corpus luteum from remaining follicle cells produces progesterone

122

Where is estrogen produced and what is it do

Estrogen is produced by follicle cells and is responsible for development of reproductive structure and behavior changes during estrus

123

What does progesterone do and where is it made

Adjuster and is produced by the corpus luteum and it prepares uterus for implantation of fertilized egg. Used therapeutically to synchronize animals reproductive cycles and to maintain pregnancies

124

List endocrine organs

Kidneys, stomach, small intestine, placenta, thymus, pineal body

125

What is the endocrine hormone in the kidneys

Erthropoietin

126

What is the target cell for the endocrine hormone in the kidneys and what does it do

Red bone marrow. Stimulates production of erythrocytes

127

What is the stimulus for production of the endocrine hormone in the kidneys

Hypoxia

128

Is the endocrine hormone in the stomach

Gastrin

129

What is the target cells for the endocrine hormone in the stomach and what is it do

Smooth muscle of stomach, gastric cells that release enzymes,hcl. Stimulates mechanical and chemical digestion in the stomach

130

What stimulus in the stomach causes the hormone gastrin to be released

Presence of food in the stomach

131

What are the two endocrine hormones associated with the small intestine and what are their actions

Secretin. Cholecystokinin. Both inhibit actions of gastrin and stimulate gallbladder to release file made by liver

132

What is the stimulus that causes the body to produce the hormones for the small intestine

Partially digested material stomach enters duodenum

133

What is the target cells for the small intestine hormones

Pancreas exocrine cells

134

What is the placenta

Working produced by embryonic mother during just a station, site of exchange of gases, nutrients, wastes by two separate capillary systems

135

Does that endocrine hormone associated with the placenta. What is the target cell for the endocrine hormone, what is it do

The hormone is chorionic gonadotropin. The target cell is the corpus luteum. Stimulates corpus luteum to maintain and endometrium until placental development is complete

136

What is the hormones that the thymus glad produce. What are the target cells. What does it do

Thymosin, thymopoietin. The target cells a good developing leukocytes and thymosin lymph nodes. Simulate development of T cells which are important immune system

137

What is the pineal body. What hormone does it produce. What is the action of it

Neil body is located caudal to foulness rostral to cerebellum hormone produced his melatonin. Action influence cyclic body cycle such as sleep and waking cycles and estrus

138

What are Prostaglandins?

Hormone like substances made from unsaturated fatty acids. Act locally do not travel very far and body. Her is functions such as influencing blood pressure G.I. tract function respiration information can you function blood clotting and reproductive function

139

What do PGE's do

Initiate information. Some NSAIDs function by inhibiting PGE synthesis

140

What does PG F2 A do

Destroys corpus luteum. terminates early pregnancies