Chapter 6 - Skeletal System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Skeletal System Deck (202):
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What are the two types of bones

Cancellous bone and compact bone

1

Describe cancellous bone

Light and spongy

2

Describe compact bone

Heavy and dense

3

What are long bones

Bones that are longer than they are wide

4

What are the ends of long bones called

Epiphyses

5

What are Epiphyses

Cancellous bone covered with a thin layer of compact bone

6

What is the long part of a long bone called

Diaphysis

7

What is the diaphysis primarily composed of

Compact bone

8

What are growth plates composed of

Cartilage

9

What is the name of the growth plate in the long bone

Epiphyseal plates

10

Once an animal reaches his full-size what happens to the epiphyseal plates

They are replaced by solid bone through a process called ossification

11

What do short bones look like

Blocks

12

What are short bones composed of

An inner core of cancellous bone covered by thin layer of compact bone

13

What are the most common short bones on the body

Carpal and tarsal bones

14

Describe flat bones

Mostly flat and thin resembling a bone sandwich

15

Describe the structure of a flat bone

A central layer of cancellous bone covered on both sides by thin layers of compact bone

16

Where are flat bones often found

The pelvic bones and the scapula are flat bones

17

Describe irregular bones

Odd shaped and don't fit into any of the other bone categories

18

What are articular surfaces

Articular surfaces are smooth areas of compact bone that come in contact with smooth surfaces of another bone to form a joint

19

What are articular surfaces covered with

Hyaline cartilage

20

What is a condyle

A usually large round articular surface

21

What bones have the most prominent condyles

The distal ends of the femur and humerus and the occipital bone

22

What are vertebrae considered

Irregular bone

23

What bone types does the skull contain

Flat bones and irregular bones

24

Where is the head of a bone found

At the proximal end of a long bone

25

How is the head joined to the rest of the bone

By a narrowed region called the neck

26

Describe the head of a bone

Mostly spherical in shape

27

What bones have heads

The proximal ends of the femur humerus and ribs

28

What is a facet

A facet is a flat articular surface

29

Where are facets found

It is found on carpal bones tarsal bones vertebrae and some long bones such as the radius and ulna

30

What are processes

Processes are the lumps and bumps on bones

31

What are condyles and heads on long bones considered

Processes but they have a specific articular function so they're classified as articular surfaces

32

What is the processes on bones used for

Is the place where the tendons of muscles attach to the bone. larger processes are where more powerful muscles attach

33

What is the processes of the femur called

Trochanter

34

What is the processes of the humerus called

Tubercle

35

What is the processes of the ischium called

Tuber

36

What is the processes of the tibia called

Crest

37

What is the processes of the ulna called

Olecranon

38

What is the processes of the scapula called

Spine

39

What is the processes of the Atlas called

Wing

40

What are holes in bones called

Foramen

41

What is the purpose of a hole in the bone

It is a passageway for blood vessels or nerves to enter and leave the bone

42

What is a fossa

A fossa is a depressed sunken area on the surface of a bone

43

What are bone fossae usually occupied by

Muscles or tendons

44

What joint is formed when the femur fits into the socket of the Pelvis

Hip joint

45

What joint is formed when the head of the humerus goes into the glenoid cavity of the scapula

Shoulder joint

46

What do the heads of the ribs articulate with

The thoracic vertebrae of the spinal column

47

What is the purpose of the foreman in the pelvic bone

To make the pelvic bone lighter

48

What is the axial skeleton composed of

The bones located on or near the central cranial-caudal axis of the body, the skull, hyoid bone, spinal column, ribs, sternum

49

What is the appendicular skeleton made up of

The main appendages of the body: thoracic limbs and pelvic limbs

50

What are the jagged immovable fibrous joints of the skull called

Sutures

51

What is the only freely movable joint of the skull

Temporomandibular joint

52

What bones are considered the external bones of the cranium

Occipital bone, interparietal bone, parietal bone, temporal bones, frontal bones

53

Describe the Occipital bone

Single bone that forms the base portion of the skull

54

What is the name of the large opening in the occipital bone

Foramen magnum

55

With what do the occipital condyles form a joint

The atlas

56

What is the Atlas

The first cervical vertebra

57

What are the interparietal bones

Two small bones in the dorsal midline between the occipital bone and the parietal bone

58

What are the parietal bones

Two bones that form the dorsolateral portion of the cranium

59

What are the Temporal bones

Two bones that form the ventrolateral portion of the cranium

60

What do the Temporal bones contain

The middle and inner ear structures

61

What joint do the Temporal bones form with the mandible

Temporomandibular joint

62

What are the frontal bones

Two bones that form the forehead part of the skull

63

What do the frontal bones contain

Large frontal sinuses

64

What do the frontal bones form

The rostral lateral part of the cranium and part of the orbit of the eye

65

In horned animals where does the horn develop

Around the cornual processes of the frontal bone

66

What bones are considered external bones of the face

Incisive bones, nasal bones, maxillary bones, lacrimal bones, zygomatic bones, mandible

67

What are incisive bones

Two bones that are the most rostral skull bones

68

What do the incisive bones house in most animals

Upper incisor teeth

69

What are nasal bones

Two bones that form the bridge of the nose- the dorsal part of the nasal cavity

70

What are the maxillary bones

Two bones that make up most of the upper jaw

71

What do the maxillary bones house

Upper canine teeth and upper premolar and molar teeth

72

What do the maxillary bones contain

The maxillary sinuses

73

What are the lacrimal bones

Two small bones that form part of the orbit of the eye

74

What do lacrimal bones contain

The lacrimal sacs

75

What are the lacrimal sacs

Part of the year drainage system

76

What are the zygomatic bones

Cheekbones. Two bones that form a portion of the orbit of the eye and a portion of the zygomatic arch

77

What is the mandible

Lower job. Two bones united rostrally by mandibular symphysis in dogs, cats, cattle

78

In what species is the mandible one solid bone

Swine and horses

79

What is the shaft of the mandible

Horizontal part that houses all lower teeth

80

What is a turbinate

Thin, scroll like bones that fill most of the space in the nasal cavities

81

What is the function of turbinate

Condition inhaled air

82

What is the function of the hyoid bone and where is it located

It attaches to the Temporal bones and supports the base of the tongue, the pharynx, larynx

83

What is the spinal column made up of

Series of irregular bones called vertebrae that extend from the skull to the top of the tail

84

What does a typical vertebra consist of

A ventral body, a dorsal arch, and a group of processes

85

How are the bodies of adjacent vertebrae separated

By cartilaginous intervertebral discs

86

What are the three kinds of processes commonly found on vertebrae

A single spinous process that projects dorsally, two transverse processes that project laterally, and articular processes on the cranial and caudal ends of the vertebra

87

What are the five regions vertebrae are grouped into

Cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, sacral vertebrae, coccygeal vertebrae

88

What is the first cervical vertebrae called

The Atlas

89

What does the atlas form a joint with

The Occipital bone

90

What is the second cervical vertebrae called

The axis

91

What is the number of thoracic vertebrae equal to

The number of pairs of ribs the animal has

92

Where are the cervical vertebrae found

In the neck region

93

Where are the thoracic vertebrae found

In the chest region

94

Where are the lumbar vertebrae found

In the abdomen region

95

Where are the sacral vertebrae found

In the pelvis region

96

Where are the coccygeal vertebrae found

In the tail region

97

What is special about the sacral vertebrae

They are fused into a single solid structure called the sacrum. the sacrum forms a joint with the ilium of the pelvis.

98

What are ribs

Ribs are flat bones that form the lateral sides of the thorax

99

What do ribs articulate with

The thoracic vertebrae dorsally

100

What is the ventral part of the rib composed of

Costal cartilage

101

What is the sternum made up of

Bones called the sternabrae

102

What is the first sternabra called

The manubrium

103

What is the last sternabra called

Xiphoid

104

What are the thoracic limbs

The front legs

105

What is special about the thoracic limbs

In common domestic animals it has no bony connection to the axial skeleton

106

How is the thoracic limb connected to the axial skeleton

Buy a sling like arrangement of muscles and tendons

107

From proximal to distal end name the bones of the thoracic limb

Scapula, humorous, radius and ulna, carpal bones, metacarpal bones, phalanges

108

What is the point at which the bony part of the rib meets the cartilaginous part of the rib called

Costochondral junction

109

What is the scapula and describe its shape

It is the shoulder blade. It is flat and somewhat triangular in shape. Has a spine like ridge that projects laterally

110

What is the name of the socket part of the ball and socket shoulder joint

Glenoid cavity

111

What joins the glenoid cavity to the main part of the scapula bone

The neck

112

What is a brachium

The upper arm

113

What is a humerus

Long bone of the brachium

114

What is the rounded head on the proximal end of the humerus part of

The ball part of the ball and socket shoulder joint

115

What joins the head of the humerus to the shaft of the humerus

The neck

116

To which large process on the humerus do the shoulder muscles attach

The greater tubercle on the proximal end of the humerus

117

What is the distal articular surface of the humerus collectively called? What is the medial part and lateral part called?

Condyle. The medial part is the trochlea and the lateral part is the capitulum

118

What is the name of the indentation on the caudal surface just proximal to the condyle on the humerus

The olecranon fossa

119

What is the ulna

The long bone of the antebrachium

120

What is the antebrachium

The forearm

121

What is the purpose of the large olecranon process on the proximal end of the ulna

Attachment site for triceps brachii muscle

122

What is the trochlear notch

Articular surface that wraps around the trochlea of the humeral condyle to make the elbow joint a tight secure joint

123

What is the radius

The main weight-bearing bone of the antebrachium

124

What does the head on the proximal end of the radius articulate with

The capitulum of the humeral condyle to form part of the elbow joint

125

What does the neck on proximal end of the radius connect to

Next the head with the shaft of the bone

126

What does the styloid process on the distal end of the radius articulate with

The carpus

127

Where are the carpal bones located

Located immediately distal to the radius and the ulna

128

What do the carpal bones consist of

Two parallel rows of short bones

129

What are the carpal bones in the proximal row named

Radial carpal, ulnar carpal, accessory carpal and sometimes intermediate carpal

130

What are the metacarpal bones

They extend distally from distal row of carpal bones to proximal phalange of digit

131

How many metacarpal bones do dogs and cats have and how do you number them

Five. Number from medial (being number one) to lateral (being number five)

132

What is the large metacarpal bone in ruminants called. And what is it Made of

The cannon bone. It is formed from two fused bones, metacarpal number three and four

133

What are the phalanges

Individual bones that make up toes

134

What is digit number one called and how many phalanges does it have

Is commonly called dewclaw and has two phalanges, proximal and distal

135

How many phalanges does digit 2-4 contain

Contains three phalanges, proximal middle and distal

136

What are the pelvic limbs

The hind legs

137

How is the pelvic limb connected to the axial skeleton

Through the sacroiliac joint that unites the ilium of the pelvis with the sacrum of the spinal column

138

From proximal to distal list the bones of the pelvic limb

Pelvis, femur, tibia and fibula, tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, phalanges

139

How is the pelvis formed

From three separate bones, Ilium, ischium and pubis on each side that eventually fuse into a solid structure

140

What are the names of the separate bones of the pelvis used to indicate

The main regions of the pelvis

141

What is the ilium

The cranial most area of the pelvis

142

What is the ischium

The caudal most area of the pelvis

143

What is the pubis, where is it located, and what does it form

Pubis is located medially and forms the cranial part of the pelvic floor

144

What forms the caudal part of the pelvic floor

The ischium

145

What receives the head of the femur to form the hip joint

The concave acetabulum on lateral surface

146

How are the two halves of the pelvis joined ventrally

By a cartilaginous joint, the pelvic symphysis

147

What are the obturator foramina?

Two large holes on either side of the pelvic symphysis that serve to lighten the pelvis

148

What is a femur

The long bones of the thigh

149

What is the rounded head on the proximal end of the femur called

The ball part of the ball and socket hip joint

150

Where is the greater trochanter located on the femur

On the proximal end

151

What is the purpose of the greater trochanter process

It is the large process to which gluteal muscles attach

152

What are the distal articular surfaces of the femur called

Rounded medial and lateral condyle's

153

What is a trochlea

Smooth articular surface on the cranial surface of the distal end in which the patella rides on the femur

154

What is the patella

The kneecap

155

What is special about the patella

It is the largest sesamoid bone in the body

156

Where's the patella located

In the distal tendon of the large quadriceps femoris muscle

157

What is the function of the patella

Passes down over the trochlea of the femur to insert into the tibial crest

158

What is a Fabellae

The medial and lateral fabellae are two small sesamoid bones in the proximal gastrocnemius muscle tendons of dogs and cats

159

Where are the fabellae located

Just proximal to and caudal to the femoral condyles

160

What is the tibia

Main weight-bearing bone of the lower leg

161

What does the proximal end of the tibia form with the femur

The stifle joint

162

What does the distal end of the tibia form with the Tarsus

The hock joint

163

What do the concave tibial condyle's on the proximal end articulate with

The condyles of the femur

164

What is the tibial crest

A rigid bone that continues distantly from the tibial tuberosity

165

What is the medial malleolus

Medial facing rounded process on distal end of the tibia (knob on medial side)

166

What is a fibula

Thin but complete bone in dog and cat. Incomplete and horses and cattle, only proximal and distal end are present.

167

What is special about the fibula

Does not support significant weight.

168

What is the function of the fibula

Serves as muscle attachment site and helps form stable joint distally with Tarsus

169

What is lateral malleolus?

Laterally facing rounded process on distal end of the fibula (lateral knob on ankle)

170

What are the tarsal bones

The Tarsus and the hock. Located immediately distal to the tibia and fibula

171

What are the tarsal bones equivalent to

The human ankle

172

What do the tarsal bones consist of and how are they named

Two rows of short bones. Bones in the proximal row are named Large tibial tarsal and fibular tarsal and small central tarsal

173

What does the tibia tarsal bones trochlea articulate with

Distal end of the tibia to form the most movable part of the hock joint

174

What is the calcaneal tuberosity

Attachment site for the tendon of the large Gastrocnemius muscle and corresponds to our heel

175

How are the bones in the distal row numbered

From medial to lateral in a similar fashion to the distal row of carpal bones

176

What are metatarsal bones

Bones that extend distally from distal Row of tarsal bones to proximal phalange of digit

177

How many metatarsal bones do dogs and cats have and how are they numbered

Four metatarsal bones and they are numbered from medial to lateral

178

How many digits to dog and cat hind paws have and how are they numbered

Four digits numbered from medial to lateral

179

How many digits do ruminants have

Four digits
Two support weight and two are nonweightbearing

180

What are joints

Joints are where bones connect with each other

181

What are the three types of joints

Fibrous joints, cartilaginous joints, synovial joints

182

What are fibrous joints

Also known as synarthroses
Bones are firmly united by fibrous tissue and allow no movement

183

What is an example of a fibrous joint

Sutures uniting most of the skull bones

184

What is a cartilaginous joint

Also known as amphiarthroses
United by fibrocartilage. Allow slight rocking movement

185

What is an example of a cartilaginous joint

Pelvic symphysis

186

What is a synovial joint

Also known as diarthroses
Allow free movement

187

What are the characteristics of synovial joints

Smooth articular surfaces covered with smooth articular cartilage
Joint capsule surrounds joint cavity that contains synovial fluid
Ligaments may connect bones together

188

What do ligaments connect

Bones to bones

189

What did tendons connect

Muscles to bones

190

What are the types of synovial joints

Hinge joint
Gliding joint
Pivot joint
Ball and socket joint

191

Give an example of where you would find a hinge joint

Elbow, joints of digits

192

Give an example of where you would find a gliding joint

Carpus

193

Given example of where you would find a pivot joint

Atlantoaxial joint, the joint between C1 and C2 vertebrae

194

Given example of where you would find a ball and socket joint

Shoulder, hip

195

What movements are possible with a synovial joint

Flexion, extension, abduction, abduction, rotation, circumduction

196

What is flexion

Decreased angle between the bones

197

What is extension

Increased angle between the bones

198

What is adduction

Movement of an extremity toward the median plane, inward

199

What is abduction

Movement of an extremity away from the median plane, outward

200

What is rotation

Twisting, rotational movement

201

What is circumduction

Movement of an extremity so the distal end moves in a circle