Chapter 7- The Muscular System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7- The Muscular System Deck (76):
0

What are the Belgian blue

Abraded beef cattle that have double muscling phenotype and very lean meat. Heard about condition of hyperplasia (increased number of muscle cells) rather than usual hypertrophy (increased size of cells)

1

What is hyperplasia

Mutation is in the Myostatin gene that normally stops muscle cell division at birth. Mutation also reduces fat deposition and muscle. Had a have high muscle to body weight ratio.

2

What is common in Belgium blues

Dystocia. Difficult births. Common due to size of calf and narrow pins of cow. C-sections are common

3

What is muscle. describe its functions

Muscle is one of four tissue types. Cells can lengthen or shorten due to protein filaments called myofilaments which compose the cytoskeleton. The functions are movement, support body, stabilize joints, reduce heat, compose hollow organs.

4

What is skeletal muscle composed of

Cells composed of alternating thick myosin and thin actin filaments. Give striated appearance. Contraction is the sliding of actin and myosin filaments past each other

5

What is a muscle

Organ composed the bundles of skeletal muscle cells covered in fibers connective tissue.

6

What is a muscle fiber

Muscle cells surrounded by endomysium

7

What is a fascicle

Bundles of cells surrounded by perimysium

8

Define muscle

Bundles of fascicles surrounded by epimysium and blood vessels, nerves, adipose

9

Describe the anatomy of a muscle

Many have a thick central region called the belly. Injection site. Fascia surrounding muscle tapers into tendons and attaches the bones

10

What is an origin

Attachment to nonremovable bone

11

What is insertion

Attachment to a moveable bone

12

What are tendons

Rope like extensions of the epimysium composed of dense regular fibrous connective tissue

13

What is an aponeurosis

Very flat tendon. Sheets of fibrous connective tissue

14

What is a fleshy attachment

Very short attendance. Give the appearance of muscle connecting directly to bone

15

What is the Linea alba

Most prominent and surgically important aponeurosis. Contains no blood vessels or major nerve. Medially unites abdominal muscles. It is from xiphoid process to pubic bones and common site for medial incision and stitches

16

What is the agonist

Muscle that actively produces a movement

17

What is the antagonist

Muscle that opposes the action of the agonist

18

What is a synergist

Muscle that assists the agonist

19

What is a fixator

Stabilize joints allowing actions to occur.

20

What is an action

Flexion of thoracic limb at elbow joint

21

What is the origin, insertion, action of the biceps brachii muscle

Origin supraglenoid tubercle of scapula. Insertion: ulna and radial tuberosities. Action flexes elbow

22

What is the origin, insertion, action of the brachialis

Origin caudalolateral aspect of the proximal humerus. Insertion ulna and radial tuberosities. Action flexes elbow

23

What is the origin, insertion, action of the triceps brachii

Origin caudal border of scapula. Proximal border of humerus. insertion olecranon process of ulna. Action extends elbow

24

What is the origin, insertion, action of the cutaneous trunci muscle

Origin superficial trunk fascia. Insertion superficial shoulder fascia and medial surface of humorous. Action moves the skin of the abdomen

25

What is the masseter muscle used for

Chewing. To close mandible. Origin maxillary, zygomatic arch
Insertion. Mandible lateral, caudal aspect

26

What is the origin and insertion of the temporalis

Assists in chewing. Origin Temporal bones. Insertion mandible

27

What is the digastricus muscle

Opens the jaw. Mandible

28

What is MMM

Most common inflammatory myopathy in dogs. Affects mainly large breeds. Affects muscles of mastication. Acute swelling difficulty in opening mouth chronic: atrophy of muscles Scaring of muscles reduce Jaw mobility. cause: autoimmune disorder. treatment: immunosuppressants

29

Whether the actions of the neck muscles

Raise neck (extend) lower neck (flex) turns head, lift shoulder (extend)

30

What is clostridial myositis

Caused by anerobic bacteria get pushed into muscles in injection. Fever, gas in tissues. Treatment: antibiotics

31

What do the abdominal muscles

Hold viscera in place. Assist in respiration, coughing, defecation, urination, parturition

32

What movements are possible with the abdominal muscles

Lift arch back, rotate twist trunk.

33

What are the four layers of the abdominal muscles from superficial to deep

External abdominal oblique, internal abdominal oblique, rectus abdominis, transversus abdominis

34

What is the origin and insertion of the Extertal abdominal oblique

The origin last rib thoracolumbar fascia. Insertion linea Alba

35

What is the origin and insertion of the internal abdominal oblique

Origin thoracolumbar fascia, insertion linea Alba

36

What is the origin and insertion of the rectus abdominis

Origin sternum insertion pubis

37

What is the origin and insertion of the transversus abdominus

Origin thoracolumbar fascia insertion linea Alba

38

What are the epaxial muscles in the trunk region

Dorsal muscles

39

Are the hypaxial muscles in the trunk region

Diaphragm, Limb & ab muscles

40

What are the muscles of the forelimb

Pectoral, bicep, tricep

41

What are the actions of the forelimb

Flexor, extensor

42

What are the muscles of the hindlimb

Gluteal, quadricep, hamstring

43

What muscles compose the hamstring group

Biceps femoris, semimembranous, semitendinosus

44

What are the pros of intramuscular injections

Faster acting then subcutaneous. Less difficult than intravenous

45

What are the cons of intramuscular injections

Requires large muscle, can administer less volume, caution of injecting blood vessels and nerves, possibility of vaccine induced sarcomas

46

Which muscles make up the shoulder/brachium

Pectoral, latissimus dorsi

47

What are the actions of the pectoral/latissimus dorsi muscles

Abduction, abduction, extension

48

What muscles compose the brachium/anti-brachium

Biceps brachii, triceps brachii

49

What are the actions of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii

Extensors, flexors

50

What muscles make up the hindlimb

Gluteal muscles, hamstring group, quadriceps femoris, gastrocnemius

51

What are skeletal muscles composed of

Skeletal muscle cells equal muscle fibers. Nerves, blood vessels, connective tissue sheath, attachments

52

What are the three types of connective tissue sheaths

Epimysium
Perimysium
Endomysium

53

What are the three types of attachments

Tendon, aponeurosis, fleshy

54

Describe a muscle fiber

Cylindrical thin and long. Multi-nucleated, located on periphery of cell beneath cell membrane equals sarcolemma

55

What Are myofibrils

Bundles of myofilaments actin and myosin

56

What is a sarcolemma

A cell membrane

57

What are the invagination's called on the sarcolemma

T-tubules

58

what is a sarcoplasm

A cytoplasm

59

What is a sarcoplasmic reticulum

Smooth ER. Many mitochondria

60

What is the cytoskeleton of a skeletal muscle cell composed of

Composed of repeating units of overlapping myofilaments, actin and myosin

61

What is the Sarcomere

Functional unit of a skeletal muscle cell. Region of a myofibril between two successive z lines. Composed of thick and thin myofilaments made of contractile proteins

62

Where do motoneurons trigger the contraction of skeletal muscle cell

At the neuromuscular junction

63

What is another name for the neuromuscular junction

The motor and plate

64

When the neurotransmitter acetylcholine binds to the sarcolemma what happens

There is a release of calcium 2+ ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Calcium 2+ ions allow binding of acting and my Ocend to form cross bridges. Contraction occurs when filament slide past each other. ATP breaks the cross bridges equals relaxation

65

What is ATP

The molecule of energy for cell. Made by the process of cellular respiration aerobic and anaerobic.

66

What is the O2 source for aerobic respiration

Myoglobin

67

What is the energy source for respiration

Glycogen

68

Describe cardiac muscle

Smaller cells, Uni nucleated. Branched connect At intercalcated Disks. Can contract without external stimulation

69

What is the autonomic nervous system's sympathetic response

Fight or flight

70

What is the autonomic nervous system's parasympathetic response

Rest and digest

71

What is the sa node

Pacemaker in heart

72

Describe that myofilaments of smooth muscle

Cells ball up rather than shorten, less forceful of contraction. Involuntary respond to stretching affected by autonomic nervous system

73

What is the effect of the autonomic nervous system's sympathetic response on smooth muscle

Decreases visceral smooth muscle contraction

74

What is the autonomic nervous system's parasympathetic response to smooth muscle

Increases visceral smooth muscle contraction

75

What is hypercalcemic periodic paralysis

Equine genetic disorder. Autosomal dominant mutation affects sodium channels of muscle cells. Symptoms range from eyelid twitching abnormal when he muscle twitching weakness in limbs, paralysis. No cure