Chapter 13- Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13- Nervous System Deck (110):
0

What is the function of the nervous system

Along with the endocrine system helps the body maintain homeostasis. Transmits electrochemical impulses

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What are the three main functional categories of the nervous system

1. sensory
2. integration
3. motor

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What does the sensory category of the nervous system do

Receives information

3

What does the integration category of the nervous system do

Sensory information processed to produce a response

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What does the motor category of the nervous system do

Sends response instructions to an effector organ

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What is an effector organ

A muscle or gland

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What is a sensory neuron called

Afferent neuron

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What is the integration neuron called

Interneuron

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What is the motor neuron called

Efferent

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What is the function of a neuron

Receive and transmit information via electrochemical impulses. High metabolic demands needs constant supply of oxygen and glucose

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Where are neurotransmitters located

At the end of a neuron. Transmission of impulse is chemical

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What are neuron processes

Dendrites and axons

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What does synapse mean

Connect

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What is a ganglia

Cluster of cell body in peripheral nervous system

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What is a nuclei

Cluster of cell bodies in central nervous system

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What are nerves

Bundles of neuron processes in preferal nervous system

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What are tracts

Bundles of neuron processes in central nervous system

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What is a fiber

Long axon

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What are the functions of neuroglia cells

Phagocytize pathogens and debris. link neurons to capillaries, help recycle neurotransmitters and ions, help circulate cerebral spinal fluid through CMS, speed up impulse transmission

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What is the blood brain barrier. What are its pros and cons

The blood brain barrier is a highly selective barrier between the cardiovascular system and brain. Lipid soluble substances pass easily. Formed by tight junctions of endothelial cells in the brain. Pros prevents passage of pathogens and toxins. Cons proteins white blood cells and antibiotics cannot pass through it

20

What is a myelin sheath and what does it surround. What is it made up of. What's its function

Mylan sheath is a segmented fatty layer formed by Schwan cells in the peripheral nervous system and Oligodendrites in the central nervous system. Function to protect and electrically insulate the axon, increase speed of nerve impulse transmission

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What does the CNS consist of

Myelinated and unmyelinated axons which are visible as distinct regions, white and gray matter

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What is degenerative myelopathy

Progressive destruction of myelinated nerves of spinal cord. Progressive hindlimb ataxia leading to paralysis. Possibly autoimmune no cure not painful. euthanasia

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What are the two main divisions of the nervous system. And what are they composed of

Central nervous system which is composed of the brain and the spinal cord. Peripheral nervous system which is composed of cranial (12 pair) spinal nerves(31+ pairs) Sensory(afferent) motor(efferent) or mixed

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What does the peripheral nervous system control

Sensory neurons and motor neurons

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What are the two branches of motor neurons

Somatic nervous system(voluntary) and autonomic nervous system(involuntary)

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What are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system

Sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight) or parasympathetic nervous system (rest and digest)

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What are five major nerves of the peripheral nervous system and indicate their location

Cranial nerves located on face. Vagus nerve located cranial to shoulder blade. brachial plexus located on shoulder blade. spinal nerves located in spinal cord. sciatic nerve located on medial portion of hindlimb

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What is the function of an afferent neuron

It is a sensory neuron

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What. Do axons synapse with

Other axons

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Which neuron would conduct an impulse faster myelinated or unmyelinated

Myelinated

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Which division of the nervous system would regulate blood pressure

Autonomic nervous system, involuntary

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In a vertebrae where is the sensory portion of the spinal nerve located. Where is the motor portion of the spinal nerve located

Sensory is located on the dorsal root of spinal nerves. Motor is located on the ventral route of spinal nerves

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What are reflexes

Rapid involuntary predictable motor responses to stimuli. Helped to protect body and maintain homeostasis.

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What is a pathway of neurons called

Reflex arc

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Describe somatic reflexes and list all examples

Activate skeletal muscle. Used to assess spinal cord or peripheral nerve damage. Stretch reflex withdrawal reflex extensor reflex

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Describe autonomic (visceral )reflexes. And list all examples

Activate visceral effectors (smoothed or cardiac muscle or glands.) Baroreflex, papillary reflex, palpebral reflex

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What is a patellar reflex and what is it an example of

Knee-jerk reflex which is an example of the stretch reflex

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What is a crossed extensor reflex considered

Contra lateral

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What is a withdrawal reflex and patellar reflex considered

Ipsilateral

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What are the four regions that the brain can be divided into

Cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, brain stem

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What is the cerebrum

Largest region of the brain. Higher-level functions learning intelligence communication receiving and interpreting sensory information and forming voluntary motor responses

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What is the cerebral cortex

Outer layer of gray matter

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What is it gyri (in cerebral cortex)

Ridges

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What are sulci (in cerebral cortex)

Shallow grove

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What are fissures (in cerebral cortex)

Deep grooves

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What is the largest tract of white fibers in the cerebrum called

Corpus callosum. Contralateral control right hemisphere controls left side of Body

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What is a cerebellum

Coordinates voluntary motor movements initiated in cerebral cortex. Helps maintain posture and balance

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What can damage to the cerebellum cause

Cerebellar ataxia (uncoordinated movements)

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What is Cerebellar hypoplasia

Kittens infected in utero with panleukopenia virus

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What are the three main structures of the diencephalon

Thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland

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What is a thalamus

Relay station for sensory information

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What is a hypothalamus

Endocrine and nervous system functions produces hormones and regulation of body temperature, thirst and hunger

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What is a pituitary gland

The master gland releases own hormones and controls other glands such as the anterior and posterior pituitary glands

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What does the brainstem control. And what are the three main structures

The brainstem controls many vital autonomic functions such as breathing heart rate coughing swallowing vomiting vasodilation and construction. The three structures are midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

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What is the spinal cord

Caudal continuation of brainstem. Composed of central canal white and gray matter. Tracks carry impulses to and from the brain

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What are the brain and spinal cord protected by

Bone, meninges, cerebrospinal fluid. Harmful substances are shielded from the brain by the blood brain barrier. and the cerebral spinal fluid from the blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier

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What are the three layers of the meninges

Dura matter, arachnoid matter, and Pia matter

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Describe Dura matter

Thick and fibrous

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Describe arachnoid matter. What is a sub arachnoid space

Arachnoid matter is delicate and web like. Subarachnoid space contains cerebrospinal fluid blood vessels

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Describe pia matter

Very thin.

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Describe the function of the meninges

Protected the CNS.

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What is inflammation of the meninges called and what is it caused by

Meningitis and it's caused by viral, bacterial, fungal infections

63

Describe cerebrospinal fluid. What is it made by

Fluid inside ventricles(brain), central cavity (spinal cord), subarachnoid space of meninges. Made by the choroid plexus similar in composition to blood plasma. Liquid cushion that gives buoyancy to CNS and protects CNS from blows and other trauma

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What is the choroid plexus composed of

Glial cells + capillaries

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What is the purpose of cerebrospinal fluid taps

To provide information regarding infections, cancers and nervous disorders

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What is encephalitis

Inflammation of brain

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What is myelitis

Inflammation of spinal cord

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How is cerebrospinal fluid collected

Collected with this final syringe with a stylet. General anesthesia is used

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What is a cisternal tap. Where is it done

Cerebellomedullary cistern. Done at atlanto-occipital joint.

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What is a lumbar tap. Where is it done

Ventral subarachnoid space between l5-6

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What is hydrocephalis

Too much cerebrospinal fluid in cerebral ventricles. Due to blockage or overproduction of cerebrospinal fluid. Common in brachiocephalic dogs and simese cats

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What is an epidural

Epidural anesthesia isn't is a technique to administer substances into the epidural space outside of the Dura matter between L7 and S1. Use for orthopedic hindlimb surgeries, C-sections, anti-inflammatory injections of cortisone. Advantages local block or analgesia on spinal nerves does not affect brain

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How does the spinal cord end

Spinal cord ends just cranial lead to sacrum then branches into cauda equina

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What is cauda equina syndrome

Due to compression of vertebral space on nerves. Due to intravertebral disc herniation, osteophytes, injury, tumor. Pain, weakness in hind end, and incontinence. Common in large dogs. Diagnosis MRI to confirm. Treatment anti-inflammatories and surgery

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What is a neural tube

Formed by rolling of outer tissue layer of the central nervous system

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What is a cranial Bulge

The brain

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What is spina bifida

Vertebral arches not completely formed. Spinal cord not enclosed by vertebrae. Mild (asymptomatic) to severe, incontinence hind end weakness and paralysis

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What is the function of the peripheral nervous system

Bring sensory information to the central nervous system. Brings motor information from central nervous system to the effector organs

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What are spinal nerves considered

Mixed nerves

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What is the autonomic nervous system composed of

Consists of involuntary motor neurons supplying smooth and cardiac muscles and glands

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What are the antagonistic divisions of the autonomic nervous system

Sympathetic and parasympathetic

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What are most organs innervated by, the sympathetic nervous system the parasympathetic?

Most organs are innervated by both to enable homeostatic balance

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Where do the sympathetic neurons exit the central nervous system

At the thoracolumbar region

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Where do the parasympathetic neurons exit the central nervous system

At the brainstem and sacral region

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The autonomic nervous system consists of which two neurons synapsing in a ganglion

Preganglionic neurons and postganglionic neurons

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What are preganglionic neurons

Neurons that originate in the central nervous system then synapse in autonomic ganglia

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What are post ganglionic neuron

Neurons that synapse with an effector organ

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What does the length of each neuron depend on

The length of the neuron depends on the autonomic nervous system division and location of autonomic ganglia

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In the sympathetic nervous system are preganglionic neurons short or long

Preganglionic neurons are short

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In the sympathetic nervous system are postganglionic neurons long or short

Long

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In the parasympathetic nervous system are preganglionic neurons long or short

Long

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In the parasympathetic nervous system are postganglionic neurons short or long

Short

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What do all preganglionic neurons release

Acetylcholine

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What do postganglionic neurons release in the sympathetic nervous system

Norepinephrine

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What do postganglionic neurons release in the parasympathetic nervous system

Acetylcholine

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What are the two receptor types for different neurotransmitters

Cholinergic receptors
Adrenergic receptors

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Where are adrenergic receptors located

In the sympathetic branch of the nervous system

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Where are cholinergic receptors located

In the parasympathetic nervous system

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What do cholinergic receptors do

Bind acetylcholine

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What do adrenergic receptors do

Bind norepinephrine

101

What is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Animal Asthma

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What is the treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Anti-inflammatory therapy and bronchial vasodilation

103

How do neurons generate and transmit impulses

Impulses are caused by the movement of ions in and out of the neuron. Ions must pass through protein channels in the cell membrane. Impulses travel down the axon until the end. At the axon terminal neurotransmitters are released to continue impulse transmission

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What is an impulse

Action potential

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What are the steps in impulse transmission

1. At rest until threshold reached
2. Depolarization (na enters axon- hits threshold- all ions rush in: na and k)
3. Repolarization (k leaves axon)
Sodium potassium pump to restore original distribution

106

How can nerve impulse transmission be made faster

Increased diameter of axon, insulate axon with Myelin

107

What is saltatory conduction

When a nerve impulse jumps from one node of ranvier to the other

108

What happens at the end of an axon

Neurotransmitters are released. Neurotransmitters then defuse to the next neuron or effector. They bind to the next neuron opening the na channels

109

What is myasthenia gravis

It is an auto immune neuromuscular disease leading to fluctuating muscle weakness and fatigue. muscle weakness is caused by circulating antibodies that block acetylcholine receptors at the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction inhibiting the Excitatory affects of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine on nicotinic receptors at neuromuscular junctions. It is treated with immunosuppressant's and thymectomy. Muscles that control I eyelid movement, facial expressions, chewing talking and swallowing are especially susceptible. Common and families with other autoimmune diseases. Disease does not get worse with age. Most commonly affects women under 40 and people from 50 to 70 years old