Chapter 9- Blood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9- Blood Deck (184):
1

What is relative polycythemia?

Hemoconception due to dehydration.

1

What is polycythemia ruba vera?

Rare bone marrow disorder; idiopathic.

2

What is compensatory polycythemia?

Increased erythropoiesis due to hypoxia.

3

What are the causes of anemia?

1. Blood loss
2. Decreased erythropoiesis
3. Decreased hemoglobin production

4

What does O2 loading in the lungs produce?

Oxyhemoglobin( ruby red)

5

What does O2 unloading in tissues produce?

Deoxyhemoglobin

6

What is oxyhemoglobin?

O2 loading in lungs

7

What is deoxyhemoglobin?

O2 loading in tissues

8

What are the types of hemoglobin?

Embryonic
Fetal
Adult

9

What purpose does the biconcave shape of red blood cell serve?

1. Higher surface area to transport gases across membrane
2. Flexible; can squeeze through small capillaries.
3. Can take in water and swell without rupturing the membrane

10

What are the main organs that hemotopoiesis are found in?

Liver and spleen

11

What are platelets?

Fragments of larger cell

12

What are the functions of platelets?

1. Nurture endothelial cells; reduce petechial hemorrhaging
2. Form temporary platelet plug that helps seal breaks in blood vessels
3. Contain some clotting factors required for coagulation

13

What are erythrocytes?

Red blood cells

14

What are leukocytes?

White blood cells

15

What is leukocytosis?

Increases white blood cells

16

What is leukocytopenia?

Decreased white blood cells

17

What are granulocytes?

Have a visible cytoplasmic granules

18

What are agranulocytes?

Do not have visible cytoplasmic granules

19

What are the types of granulocytes?

Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils

20

What are the types of agranulocytes?

Lymphocytes
Monocytes

21

What is the decreasing order of leukocytes in abundance in blood?

Neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils

22

What colour do neutrophil granules stain?

Lavender

23

What colour do eosinophil granules stain?

Red

24

What colour do basophils stain?

Blue

25

What is the most abundant lukocyte?

Neutrophils

26

What is the least abundant lukocyte?

Basophils

27

What do neutrophils contain?

Enzymes and antimicrobial proteins that kill pathogens

28

What type of nucleus does a neutrophil have?

Multilobed
2-6lobes in the nucleus

29

What type of nucleus do eosinophils have?

Bilobed nucleus

30

What do the granules of eosinophils do?

Release enzymes to digest parasitic worms.

31

What are basophils functionally similar to?

Mast cells

32

What do the granules of basophils contain?

Histamine

33

How does histamine work in basophils?

Inflammatory chemical that acts as a vasodilator to allow WBCs to reach site of infection

34

What type of nuclei do granulocytes have?

Lobed

35

What type of nuclei do agranulocytes have?

Spherical or kidney shaped

36

Where are lymphocytes mostly found?

In lymphoid tissue

37

What are the types of lymphocytes?

T lymphocytes
B lymphocytes
Natural killer cells

38

What is the function of T cells?

Act against virus-infected cells and tumor cells

39

What is the function of B cells?

Give rise to plasma cells, which produce antibodies

40

What is the largest leukocyte?

Monocytes

41

Do granulocytes return once they leave capillaries?

No

42

Are eosinophils protective against bacteria?

Not really

43

What does hemostasis require?

Clotting factors and substances released by platelets and injured tissues

44

What is the function of hemostasis?

Rapid series of reactions for stoppage of bleeding.

45

What are the steps of hemostasis?

1. Vasoconstriction
2. Platelet plug formation
3. Coagulation

46

What type of blood vessel is vasoconstriction most effective in?

Smaller blood vessels

47

What does vasoconstriction do?

Narrows damages blood vessels

48

What is vasoconstriction triggered by?

- direct injury to vascular smooth muscle
- chemicals releases by endothelial cells and platelets
- pain reflexes

49

How does platelet plug formation work?

-platelets stick to collagen fibres
- platelets swell, become spiked and sticky and release chemical to cause more platelets to aggregate

50

What happens to blood during coagulation?

Blood is transformed from liquid to gel

51

How is platelet plug reinforced?

With fibrin threads

52

What vitamin is needed to synthesize 4 clotting factors in coagulation?

Vitamin K

53

What are the phases of coagulation?

1. Prothrombin activator formed in both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways
2. Prothrombin converted to enzyme thrombin
3. Thrombin catalyzes fibrinogen into fibrin. Forms a fibrin mesh stabilizing initial platelet clot

54

What happens in the first phase of coagulation?

Prothrombin activator formed in both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways

55

What happens in the second phase of coagulation?

Prothrombin is converted into the enzyme thrombin

56

What happens in the final phase of coagulation?

Thrombin catalyzes fibrinogen into fibrin; forms a fibrin protein mesh stabilizing the initial platelet clot

57

What are factors that decrease clotting time? (5)

- lack of vitamin K
- liver disorders
- hemophilia
- thrombocytopenia
-lack of blood calcium

58

What is immunity?

Resistance to disease

59

What does immunity provide/do?

Keeps pathogens out; destroys them if they get in

60

What are the type of immunity defenders?

1. Innate
2. Acquired (adaptive)

61

What type of defense is the first line of defense?

Innate

62

What type of defense is the second line of defense?

Innate

63

What type of defense is the third line of defense?

Acquired (adaptive)

64

What at autoimmune disorders?

Disorders that do not recognize "self"

65

Are innate defended specific or non specific?

Non specific

66

Is the first line of defense specific or not specific?

Non specific

67

Is the second line of defense specific or non specific?

Non specific

68

Is acquired defense specific or non specific?

Specific

69

Is the third line of defense specific or non specific?

Specific

70

What are the types of acquired defense?

Hummoral immunity
Cellular immunity

71

What does the first line of defense protect? (Area)

Surface barriers

72

What are the surface barriers?

Skin
Mucous membranes

73

What type of defense is the second line? (Area)

Internal defense

74

What are the internal defenders?

-phagocytes
- natural killer cells
- inflammation
- anti microbial proteins
- fever

75

What type of cells take part in humoral immunity?

B cells

76

What type of cells take part in cellular immunity?

T cells

77

What type of defense becomes stronger with age?

Third line

78

What kind of protection does the first line provide?

Chemical and physical

79

What kind of protection does the second line provide?

Cellular and chemical

80

What is the make up of skin?

Stratifies, keratinized and relatively dry

81

What type of junctions does skin have and what does it do?

Tight junctions seal epithelial cells together

82

What does the mucosa do?

Mucus traps dust and pathogens

83

What is the purpose of cilia with respect to mucus?

Cilia of upper respiratory tract moves mucus toward mouth to be coughed or swallowed.

84

Where is the acidic located in the surface barriers?

Skin
Stomach
Vagina
Ultimatum tract

85

How does acidity work in the surface barriers?

It inhibits the growth of many microbes

86

What is the purpose of sebum oil?

Some lipids released by the sebaceous glands have anti microbial properties

87

What are the enzymes in the first line of defense and where are they?

-lysozymes in tears, saliva
- pepsin, protease a in GI tract

88

What are the antimocrobial proteins secreted by?

Skin
Mucus membranes

89

What are the phagocytes in the second line of defense?

- Neutrophils
- macrophages

90

What is the most effective phagocyte in the 2nd line of defense?

Macrophages

91

What are macrophage developed from?

Monocytes

92

What do free macrophages do?

Wander through tissue spaces

93

What are fixed macrophages?

Permanent residents of many organs

94

What are some organs where macrophages can be found?

-lungs
-liver
-nerves
-lymph nodes

95

What is opsonization?

Marks pathogens by coating them with complement proteins or antibodies

96

How do phagocytes work in the second line of defense?

Engulf pathogens, toxins

97

What do phagocytes adhere to?

Cell/substance

98

How do some bacteria evade adherence by phagocytes?

By having a capsule which makes then more virulent

99

What do NK cells secrete?

Chemicals that enhance inflammatory response

100

What do NK cells attack?

Cells that lack "self" cell-surface receptors

101

What do the proteins that NK cells release do?

Form pores in target cells

102

What do NK cells do when they release chemicals?

The chemicals released into cells induce apoptosis in cancer cells and virus-infected cells.

103

When in the inflammatory response triggered?

When the tissue is damaged

104

What are the benefits of the inflammatory response?

It prevents the spread of pathogen/toxin and it alerts the 3rd line of defense

105

What are the signs of acute inflammation?

1. Redness
2. Heat
3. Swelling
4. Pain
5. Impairment of function (sometimes)

106

What causes the release of chemicals that trigger the inflammatory response?

- injured mast cells release histamines
- macrphages, NK cells, tissue cells release other chemicals

107

What is the response to chemicals released during inflammatory response?

-dilate local arterioles
- cause redness and heat of inflamed region
- make capillaries "leaky" ( fluid entree tissues causes swelling)
- attract leukocytes to area

108

What are antimocrobial proteins?

- Proteins releases by virus infected cells which prevent healthy cells from being infected by virus

109

What are interferons?

Antimocrobial proteins

110

How are antimocrobial proteins used medically?

As antivirals in cancer and viral disorders

111

What are the mechanism for destroying foreign substances in complement proteins?

1. Stimulate inflammatory response and chemotaxis
2. Enhance phagocytosis
3. Kills bacteria and other foreign cells directly

112

What is a normal body temperature?

101-102.5 F
38.3-39.2 C

113

What temperature would mean a fever?

>103 F
39.4 C

114

What temperature is considered not to be good?

>104F
40C

115

What is a fever?

Abnormally high body temperature

116

What is a fever caused by?

Systemic response to invading microorganisms

117

What do leukocytes and macrophages secrete when exposed to foreign substances?

Pyrogens

118

How do pyrogens work?

Act on body's thermostat in hypothalamus, raising set point for body's temperature

119

What are the benefits of a moderate fever?

- causes the liver and spleen to sequester iron and zinc
- increases metabolic rate -> faster repair

120

What are the characteristics of acquired immunity?

1. Specific
2. Memory
3. Self-tolerant

121

What does the specific characteristic do in the 3rd line of defense?

It recognizes and target specific pathogens or foreign molecules

122

What does memory do in the 3rd line of defense?

It remembers past pathogens so response will be faster next time

123

Where do B cells mature?

In bone marrow

124

What does the self-tolerant characteristic do in the 3rd line of defense?

It can distinguish "self" from "nonslef"; it will not attack it's own cells/tissues

125

Where do T cells matture?

In the thymus gland

126

What are antigens?

Substances that can stimulate B & T cells and provoke an immune response

127

What are antigenic determinants?

Part of an antigen that causes an immune response

128

What binds to antigenic determinants?

Antibodies and lymphocyte receptors

129

How is the body self tolerant and able to recognize its own cells?

All nucleated cells have a molecular tag that identifies them as "self"
( foreign cells have different tags)

130

What are MHC used by and why?

Used by infected cells or macrophages to present antigens to immune system cells

131

What do B cells do?

Make antibodies against specific pathogens/toxins

132

What do T cells do?

Kill specific cells directly or indirectly

133

What do plasma B cell lymphocytes produce?

Antibodies

134

How do T cell lymphocytes react directly?

By killing infected or cancerous cells
* killer T cells

135

How do T cells react indirectly?

By releasing chemicals that enhance inflammatory response or by activating other lymphocytes or macrophages to kill affected cell
* helper T cell

136

What do suppressor T cells do?

Kept immune system in check through negative feedback

137

What happens during the secondary immune response?

Re-exposure to same antigen gives aster, more prolonged, more effective response

138

What happens during the primary immune response?

-colonal selection upon first antigen exposure
-lag period: 3-6 days
- peak antibody level at 10 days, then they decline

139

When do antibody level peak during the secondary immune response?

Peak in 2-3 days at much higher level and remain high for weeks

140

When does active humoral immunity occur?

When B cells encounter antigens an produce specific antibodies against them

141

What are the types of immunity?

1. Naturally acquired
2. Artificially acquired

142

What is naturally acquired immunity in active immunity?

A response to bacterial or viral infection (I.e., you get sick)

143

What is artificially acquired immunity in activity immunity?

A response to vaccine of dead or attenuated( inactivated) pagtogens

144

What does passive immunity occur?

Occurs when antibodies are introduced into the body

145

What happens during passive humoral immunity?

Immediate protection but it ends when antibodies are naturally degraded into the body; no immunological memory

146

What happens in naturally acquired passive humoral immunity?

Antibodies are delivered to the fetus via placenta or to infant through milk

147

What happens during artificially acquired passive humoral immunity?

Injection of antibodies

148

What type of immune response do B lymphocytes provide?

Humoral

149

What type of immune response do T lymphocytes provide?

Cellular

150

Do B lymphocytes have antibody secretions?

Yes

151

Do T lymphocytes have antibody secretions?

No

152

What are the primary targets of B lymphocytes?

Extra cellular pathogens
( bacteria, fungi, parasites)

153

What are the primary targets of T lymphocytes?

Intracellular pathogens
( virus-infected cells) and cancer cells

154

What is the site of origin of B lymphocytes?

Red bone marrow

155

What is the site of origin of T lymphocytes?

Red bone marrow

156

What are the effector cells of B lymphocytes?

Plasma cells

157

What are the effector cells of B lymphocytes?

Cytotoxic (killer) T cells, helper T cells, regulatory (suppressor) T cells

158

Do B lymphocytes have memory cell formation?

Yes

159

Do T lymphocytes have memory cell formation?

Yes

160

What are the functions of blood?

1. Transport
2. Regulation
3. Defense

161

What are the regulatory functions of blood?

-body temperature
-water balance in cells
- pH balance

162

What are the defense components in the functions of blood?

-against pathogens
-blood clotting

163

Why may plasma appear cloudy?

Because of postprandial lipemia

164

Why is plasma yellow in color?

Due to bilirubin

165

What are the components of serum?

Plasma- clotting factors

166

What are anticoagulants used for?

Used to prevent clotting in vitro or in vivo

167

What are substances that block clotting factors?

-EDTA
-Heparin
-Warfarin

168

How/where does EDTA work?

Binds Ca++; used in lab; lavender too

169

How is heparin produced?

Naturally occurring ( made by mast cells)

170

What is heparin used for?

Used to prevent thrombosis, embolism

171

What was warfarin used for in the 1940s?

Used as rat poison

172

What was Warfarin used for in the 1950s + ?

Used medicinally- oral anticoagulant

173

What are the formed elements?

1. Erythrocytes
2. Leukocytes
3. Thrombocytes

174

What is blood composed of?

1. Plasma
2. Formed elements

175

Which blood cells are complete?

White

176

What is hematopoiesis?

The formation of blood cells; continual process; stem cells -> formed element cells

177

What is erythropoietin?

A hormone

178

What does erythropoietin do?

Stimulates erythropoiesis

179

What releases erythropoietin?

The kidneys in response to hypoxia

180

What are the causes of hypoxia?

- decreased RBC numbers due to hemorrhage or increased destruction
- insufficient hemoglobin per RBC
- reduced availability of O2

181

What are MHC used by and why?

Used by infected cells or macrophages to present antigens to immnue system cells

182

What do B cells do?

Make antibodies against specific pathogens/toxins

183

What do T cells do?

Kill specific cells directly or indirectly