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A&P II > Blood > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood Deck (91):
1

what is the main protein found in plasma?

albumin

2

how many molecules of oxygen can be transported by one hemoglobin molecule?

4

3

What is plasma?

Nonliving fluid matrix

4

What are formed elements? Composition?

Living blood cells: erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets

5

Define hematocrit.

Percent of total blood volume occupied by erythrocytes

6

Give the range of hematocrit for males and females

Males 47 +/- 5
Females 42+/- 5

7

What are the physical characteristics of blood

scarlet to dark red, pH 7.35-7.45, 38C

8

What does it mean when the blood is dark red or scarlet?

Dark red is a lack of oxygen and scarlet is the presence of oxygen

9

What are the 3 functions of blood?

protection, distribution.n and regulation

10

Name the term. helps maintain normal body temperature, pH, and fluid volume

Regulation of blood

11

What describes the slow blood loss preventing infection?

Protection of the blood

12

Describe blood plasma

straw-colored, sticky fluid, 90% water, 10% dissolved solutes

13

What describes the O2 and nutrients; metabolic and hormones?

Distribution of the blood

14

Which 3 proteins compromise plasma? Percentage?

albumin (60%), globulins(34%), and fibrinogen (4%)

15

T/F. Only leukocytes are complete cells

T

16

T/F Most formed elements divide, but are continuously renewed by division of stem cells in red bone marrow

F. Most do NOT divide

17

What are the functions of erythrocytes?

Pick up O2 and release it to tissue cells and transport ~ 20% of CO2 from tissue back to lungs

18

What is the shape of erythrocytes?

biconcave disc shape

19

What is the advantage of the particular shape of an erythrocyte?

increases surface area to volume ration allowing faster O2 exchange. This allows RBCs to bend and flex

20

What are the two parts of hemoglobin?

Globin and heme

21

Why is carbon monoxide dangerous?

CO has a higher affinity than O2 for heme binding sites

22

What is the term given to blood cell formation?

hematopoiesis

23

Where does blood cell formation occur in adults?

red bone marrow

24

What is another term for hemocytoblasts?

hematopoietic stem cells

25

What are the three phases of erythropoiesis?

1. Ribosome synthesis
2. Hemoglobin accumulation
3. Ejection of nucleus and formation of reticulocytes

26

What is Erythropoietin (EPO)?

A hormone that stimulates RBS production

27

How is EPO released?

In response to hypoxia via the kidneys

28

What hypoxia?

decreased RBC count, amount of Hb, and O2 availability

29

What is blood doping?.

RBCs are drawn off and stored then replaced

30

What is the life span of erythrocytes?

100-120 days

31

Can RBCs grow or divide?

no

32

How are aged and damaged RBCs removed?

via macrophages in the spleen and liver

33

What is the function of iron in RBCs?

released from heme and stored for reuse

34

What is the function of globin in RBCs?

break down amino acids

35

What is the function of hemoglobin?

split into heme and globin

36

What is converted to bilirubin?

balance of heme

37

Describe the process of bilirubin

picked up from blood by liver, secreted into intestine in bile then excreted in feces

38

What occurs when the blood has abnormally lost 02 carrying capacity?

Anemia

39

What are the causes of anemia?

insufficient RBCs, low Hb, Abnormal Hb

40

Which anemia is the destruction of red bone marrow by drugs, chemicals, or radiation?

aplastic

41

Which anemia is the result of the loss of blood?

hemorrhagic

42

Which anemia is caused by deficiency of vitamin B12?

Pernicious

43

Which anemia is caused by ruptured RBCs?

hemolytic

44

What is the name given for abnormal hemoglobin?

sickle-cell anemia

45

What is polycythemia?

excess of RBCs that increase blood viscosity

46

In what scenarios would an increased hematocrit not indicate polycythemia?

dehydration

47

What are the function of leukocytes?

protect body from damage by bacteria, viruses, parasites, toxin, and tumor cells; remove dead cells and debris by phagocytosis

48

What are the two categories of leukocytes?

granulocytes and agranulocytes

49

List the granulocytes

Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils

50

List the agranulocytes

Lymphocytes and monocytes

51

Which is the most numerous WBC? Function

Neutrophils: phagocytize bacteria

52

What is the function of eosinophils?

digest parasitic worms that are too large to be phagocytized

53

What is the function of basophils?

release inflammatory chemical, histamine

54

Which is the largest leukocyte? Function?

Monocyte, leave the bloodstream to the tissues to differentiate into a macrophage

55

From least to abundant list the leukocytes

Basophils, eosinophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils

56

Which disorder has an abnormally low WBC count?

leukpenia

57

Which disorder has a group of cancerous condition involving WBCs?

leukemia

58

What is the term for excessive number of WBC?

Leukocytosis

59

What are the results of leukemia?

severe anemia, bleeding problems,and inability to fight off infection

60

What are platelets derived?

from megakaryotes

61

Which process are platelets essential?

clotting process

62

What is hemostasis?

stoppage of bleeding when a blood vessel wall breaks

63

What are the 3 steps of hemostasis?

1. Vascular spasm
2. Platelet plug formation 3. Coagulation

64

What are the causes and effects of vascular spasms?

Causes: direct injury to vascular smooth muscle, chemical released by endothelial cells and platelets and reflexes initiated by local pain receptor.

Effect: vasoconstriction of damaged blood vessel to reduce blood loss

65

What occurs during platelet plug formation?

platelets aggregate, forming a platelet plug that temporarily seals break in vessel wall

66

What is coagulation?

fibrin forms a mesh that traps red blood cells and platelets forming the clot

67

What are the three phases of coagulation?

1. Formation of prothrombin activator
2. Prothrombin activator catalyzes conversion of prothrombin into thrombin
3. thrombin catalyzes conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin

68

what are the two pathways that initiate prothrombin activator?

extrinsic and intrinsic

69

describe the intrinsic pathway.

triggered by negatively charged surfaces, factors needed for clotting are present within blood, and slower than extrinsic pathway due to intermediate steps

70

Describe the extrinsic pathway.

triggered by esposing blood to tissue factor found in tissues deep to damaged epitheliumm tissue factor is outside the blood, and faster due to bypassing intermediate steps

71

What is the goal of both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway?

both cascade toward factor X which forms prothrombin activator

72

What role does thrombin play?

thrombin catalyzes conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin

73

What is clot retraction?

process by which clot is condensed into more compact structure. Damaged vessel is repaired

74

What is finbrinolysis?

process by which unneeded clots are dissolved. This converts plasminogen to plasmin

75

What is an anticoagulation?

prevents blood clots from spreading beyond wound site

76

What is a thrombus?

clot that develops and persist in an unbroken blood vessel

77

What is the term for a thrombus that breaks frees and floats freely n the bloodstream?

embolus

78

What is an embolism?

obstruction of a blood vessel by an embolus

79

What are three substances that are clinically used to prevent undesirable clotting?

aspirin, heparin, and leeches

80

What is the deficiency in number of circulating platelets?

thrombocytopenia

81

What is a transfusion?

transfer of whole blood or blood components from one individual to another

82

What is a transfusion reaction?

destruction of transfused RBCs by recipient's immune system

83

What is an antigen? Antibody?

Antigen: any substance that provoke an immune response
Antibody: protein produced by immune system

84

What is agglutination?

donor RBCs are clumped together by recipient's ABs

85

List all blood groups and their AG

A: A Ag
B: B Ag
AB: A & B Ags
O: Neither

86

List all blood groups and their Abs

A: anti-B Abs
B: anti-B Abs
AB: none
O: Both A & B anti-Abs

87

When serum is added to a blood type what does it mean when there is clumping?

This indicates that an antigen has bound to an antibody indicating the particular blood type

88

What is the universal blood donor type?

O negative

89

What is the universal blood recipient?

AB

90

What occurs the first time a pregnant woman who is RH- has an Rh+?

This baby will be okay, however the mom will develop AB to fight off the AG

91

What occurs the second time the mom gets pregnant after being exposed to anti-RH Abs?

Her body will try to fight her baby's RBCs causing hemolytic disease in the newborn