Flashcards in Blood Deck (91):
what is the main protein found in plasma?
how many molecules of oxygen can be transported by one hemoglobin molecule?
What is plasma?
Nonliving fluid matrix
What are formed elements? Composition?
Living blood cells: erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
Percent of total blood volume occupied by erythrocytes
Give the range of hematocrit for males and females
Males 47 +/- 5
Females 42+/- 5
What are the physical characteristics of blood
scarlet to dark red, pH 7.35-7.45, 38C
What does it mean when the blood is dark red or scarlet?
Dark red is a lack of oxygen and scarlet is the presence of oxygen
What are the 3 functions of blood?
protection, distribution.n and regulation
Name the term. helps maintain normal body temperature, pH, and fluid volume
Regulation of blood
What describes the slow blood loss preventing infection?
Protection of the blood
Describe blood plasma
straw-colored, sticky fluid, 90% water, 10% dissolved solutes
What describes the O2 and nutrients; metabolic and hormones?
Distribution of the blood
Which 3 proteins compromise plasma? Percentage?
albumin (60%), globulins(34%), and fibrinogen (4%)
T/F. Only leukocytes are complete cells
T/F Most formed elements divide, but are continuously renewed by division of stem cells in red bone marrow
F. Most do NOT divide
What are the functions of erythrocytes?
Pick up O2 and release it to tissue cells and transport ~ 20% of CO2 from tissue back to lungs
What is the shape of erythrocytes?
biconcave disc shape
What is the advantage of the particular shape of an erythrocyte?
increases surface area to volume ration allowing faster O2 exchange. This allows RBCs to bend and flex
What are the two parts of hemoglobin?
Globin and heme
Why is carbon monoxide dangerous?
CO has a higher affinity than O2 for heme binding sites
What is the term given to blood cell formation?
Where does blood cell formation occur in adults?
red bone marrow
What is another term for hemocytoblasts?
hematopoietic stem cells
What are the three phases of erythropoiesis?
1. Ribosome synthesis
2. Hemoglobin accumulation
3. Ejection of nucleus and formation of reticulocytes
What is Erythropoietin (EPO)?
A hormone that stimulates RBS production
How is EPO released?
In response to hypoxia via the kidneys
decreased RBC count, amount of Hb, and O2 availability
What is blood doping?.
RBCs are drawn off and stored then replaced
What is the life span of erythrocytes?
Can RBCs grow or divide?
How are aged and damaged RBCs removed?
via macrophages in the spleen and liver
What is the function of iron in RBCs?
released from heme and stored for reuse
What is the function of globin in RBCs?
break down amino acids
What is the function of hemoglobin?
split into heme and globin
What is converted to bilirubin?
balance of heme
Describe the process of bilirubin
picked up from blood by liver, secreted into intestine in bile then excreted in feces
What occurs when the blood has abnormally lost 02 carrying capacity?
What are the causes of anemia?
insufficient RBCs, low Hb, Abnormal Hb
Which anemia is the destruction of red bone marrow by drugs, chemicals, or radiation?
Which anemia is the result of the loss of blood?
Which anemia is caused by deficiency of vitamin B12?
Which anemia is caused by ruptured RBCs?
What is the name given for abnormal hemoglobin?
What is polycythemia?
excess of RBCs that increase blood viscosity
In what scenarios would an increased hematocrit not indicate polycythemia?
What are the function of leukocytes?
protect body from damage by bacteria, viruses, parasites, toxin, and tumor cells; remove dead cells and debris by phagocytosis
What are the two categories of leukocytes?
granulocytes and agranulocytes
List the granulocytes
List the agranulocytes
Lymphocytes and monocytes
Which is the most numerous WBC? Function
Neutrophils: phagocytize bacteria
What is the function of eosinophils?
digest parasitic worms that are too large to be phagocytized
What is the function of basophils?
release inflammatory chemical, histamine
Which is the largest leukocyte? Function?
Monocyte, leave the bloodstream to the tissues to differentiate into a macrophage
From least to abundant list the leukocytes
Basophils, eosinophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils
Which disorder has an abnormally low WBC count?
Which disorder has a group of cancerous condition involving WBCs?
What is the term for excessive number of WBC?
What are the results of leukemia?
severe anemia, bleeding problems,and inability to fight off infection
What are platelets derived?
Which process are platelets essential?
What is hemostasis?
stoppage of bleeding when a blood vessel wall breaks
What are the 3 steps of hemostasis?
1. Vascular spasm
2. Platelet plug formation 3. Coagulation
What are the causes and effects of vascular spasms?
Causes: direct injury to vascular smooth muscle, chemical released by endothelial cells and platelets and reflexes initiated by local pain receptor.
Effect: vasoconstriction of damaged blood vessel to reduce blood loss
What occurs during platelet plug formation?
platelets aggregate, forming a platelet plug that temporarily seals break in vessel wall
What is coagulation?
fibrin forms a mesh that traps red blood cells and platelets forming the clot
What are the three phases of coagulation?
1. Formation of prothrombin activator
2. Prothrombin activator catalyzes conversion of prothrombin into thrombin
3. thrombin catalyzes conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin
what are the two pathways that initiate prothrombin activator?
extrinsic and intrinsic
describe the intrinsic pathway.
triggered by negatively charged surfaces, factors needed for clotting are present within blood, and slower than extrinsic pathway due to intermediate steps
Describe the extrinsic pathway.
triggered by esposing blood to tissue factor found in tissues deep to damaged epitheliumm tissue factor is outside the blood, and faster due to bypassing intermediate steps
What is the goal of both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway?
both cascade toward factor X which forms prothrombin activator
What role does thrombin play?
thrombin catalyzes conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin
What is clot retraction?
process by which clot is condensed into more compact structure. Damaged vessel is repaired
What is finbrinolysis?
process by which unneeded clots are dissolved. This converts plasminogen to plasmin
What is an anticoagulation?
prevents blood clots from spreading beyond wound site
What is a thrombus?
clot that develops and persist in an unbroken blood vessel
What is the term for a thrombus that breaks frees and floats freely n the bloodstream?
What is an embolism?
obstruction of a blood vessel by an embolus
What are three substances that are clinically used to prevent undesirable clotting?
aspirin, heparin, and leeches
What is the deficiency in number of circulating platelets?
What is a transfusion?
transfer of whole blood or blood components from one individual to another
What is a transfusion reaction?
destruction of transfused RBCs by recipient's immune system
What is an antigen? Antibody?
Antigen: any substance that provoke an immune response
Antibody: protein produced by immune system
What is agglutination?
donor RBCs are clumped together by recipient's ABs
List all blood groups and their AG
A: A Ag
B: B Ag
AB: A & B Ags
List all blood groups and their Abs
A: anti-B Abs
B: anti-B Abs
O: Both A & B anti-Abs
When serum is added to a blood type what does it mean when there is clumping?
This indicates that an antigen has bound to an antibody indicating the particular blood type
What is the universal blood donor type?
What is the universal blood recipient?
What occurs the first time a pregnant woman who is RH- has an Rh+?
This baby will be okay, however the mom will develop AB to fight off the AG