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Flashcards in Immune System Deck (60)
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1

Body's ability to resist or eliminate potentially harmful foreign materials or abnormal cells

Immunity

2

Identifies and destroys abnormals cells that arise in the body

immune surveillance

3

Nonspecific, defends against any foreign or abnormal material, even on initial exposure, responds immediately

innate defense system

4

Specific, selectively targets particular foreign material to which body has already been exposed, takes more time to mount

Adaptive defense system

5

First line of defense

epithelial barriers (skin and mucosa membranes)

6

Second line of defense

internal defenses (inflammation)

7

Third line of defense

lymphocytes

8

List all factors of second line of defense

fever, phagocytes, NK cells, antimicrobial proteins, and inflammation

9

What are the 2 types of phagocytes?

neutrophils and macrophages

10

Lymphocytes that nonspecifically destroy virus-infected cells and cancer cells, kill by direct contact

NK Cells

11

What is the purpose of inflammation?

isolate, destroy, or inactivate invaders, remove debris, and prepare for subsequent healing and repair

12

What are the four cardinal signs of acute inflammation?

redness, heat, swelling and pain

13

What are the sequence of events?

release of inflammatory chemicals, vasodilation and increased capillary permeability and phagocyte mobilization

14

In area of tissue damage release histamine that cause localized vasodilation and increased capillary permeability

Mast cells

15

What causes redness and heat

arterioles dilate and increase blood flow

16

What causes swelling and pain?

increased capillary permeability so fluid and plasma proteins leak into tissue spaces

17

In order, what are the 4 steps of phagocyte mobilization?

1. Leukoctosis
2. Margination
3. Diapedesis
4. Chemotaxis

18

Neutrophils migrate up gradient of chemotaxins to injury site

chemotaxis

19

Neutrophils stick to endothelial lining

margination

20

Neutrophils squeeze between endothelial cells

diapedesis

21

Increase in number of neutrophils in blood response to ____- inducing factors

leukocytosis

22

What follows neutrophils?

monocytes which become macrophages

23

What are the components of pus?

mixture of living and dead phagocytes, dead tissue and bacteria

24

Secreted by virus-infected cells, interfere with replication of viruses in nearby cells that have not yet been infected

interferons

25

What are the 2 ways that complement proteins can be activated?

Innate: by exposure t carbohydrate chains present on surfaces of microorgansims

Adaptive: by exposure to ABs produced against a specific foreign invader

26

What are the 3 effects of activated complement?

enhances inflammation, oposinzation and cell lysis, MAC complex

27

Abnormally high body temperature, release of pyrogens

fever

28

What are the 2 benefits of fever?

causes liver and spleen to sequester iron and zinc (less available for bacterial growth)and increases metabolic rate of tissue cells (speeds up repair)

29

What type of immunity acts against extracellular and provides by antibodies present in body's fluids?

Humoral (AB-mediated)

30

What type of immunity acts against intracellular and provided by living cells?

Cellular (cell-mediated)