Immune System Flashcards Preview

A&P II > Immune System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immune System Deck (60):
1

Body's ability to resist or eliminate potentially harmful foreign materials or abnormal cells

Immunity

2

Identifies and destroys abnormals cells that arise in the body

immune surveillance

3

Nonspecific, defends against any foreign or abnormal material, even on initial exposure, responds immediately

innate defense system

4

Specific, selectively targets particular foreign material to which body has already been exposed, takes more time to mount

Adaptive defense system

5

First line of defense

epithelial barriers (skin and mucosa membranes)

6

Second line of defense

internal defenses (inflammation)

7

Third line of defense

lymphocytes

8

List all factors of second line of defense

fever, phagocytes, NK cells, antimicrobial proteins, and inflammation

9

What are the 2 types of phagocytes?

neutrophils and macrophages

10

Lymphocytes that nonspecifically destroy virus-infected cells and cancer cells, kill by direct contact

NK Cells

11

What is the purpose of inflammation?

isolate, destroy, or inactivate invaders, remove debris, and prepare for subsequent healing and repair

12

What are the four cardinal signs of acute inflammation?

redness, heat, swelling and pain

13

What are the sequence of events?

release of inflammatory chemicals, vasodilation and increased capillary permeability and phagocyte mobilization

14

In area of tissue damage release histamine that cause localized vasodilation and increased capillary permeability

Mast cells

15

What causes redness and heat

arterioles dilate and increase blood flow

16

What causes swelling and pain?

increased capillary permeability so fluid and plasma proteins leak into tissue spaces

17

In order, what are the 4 steps of phagocyte mobilization?

1. Leukoctosis
2. Margination
3. Diapedesis
4. Chemotaxis

18

Neutrophils migrate up gradient of chemotaxins to injury site

chemotaxis

19

Neutrophils stick to endothelial lining

margination

20

Neutrophils squeeze between endothelial cells

diapedesis

21

Increase in number of neutrophils in blood response to ____- inducing factors

leukocytosis

22

What follows neutrophils?

monocytes which become macrophages

23

What are the components of pus?

mixture of living and dead phagocytes, dead tissue and bacteria

24

Secreted by virus-infected cells, interfere with replication of viruses in nearby cells that have not yet been infected

interferons

25

What are the 2 ways that complement proteins can be activated?

Innate: by exposure t carbohydrate chains present on surfaces of microorgansims

Adaptive: by exposure to ABs produced against a specific foreign invader

26

What are the 3 effects of activated complement?

enhances inflammation, oposinzation and cell lysis, MAC complex

27

Abnormally high body temperature, release of pyrogens

fever

28

What are the 2 benefits of fever?

causes liver and spleen to sequester iron and zinc (less available for bacterial growth)and increases metabolic rate of tissue cells (speeds up repair)

29

What type of immunity acts against extracellular and provides by antibodies present in body's fluids?

Humoral (AB-mediated)

30

What type of immunity acts against intracellular and provided by living cells?

Cellular (cell-mediated)

31

large, complex molecule that triggers a specific immune response against itself when it gains entry into the body

AG

32

What type of cells are involved in humoral? Cell-mediated?

Humoral: B cells
Cellular- T cells

33

Where do B and T cell originate?

red bone marrow

34

Ability to recognize a specific AG by binding to it

immunocompetence

35

Failure to respond t self-AGs

self-tolerance

36

What are the primary lymphoid organs?

thymus and bone marrow

37

What are secondary lymphoid organs?

spleen, lymph nodes, and peyer's patches

38

What are the 2 options B cells can become during clonal expansion?

PCs and memory cells

39

Describe primary immune response

occurs on first exposure to a specific Ag, 3-6 days, peak plasma AB levels reaches in 10 days

40

Describe secondary immune response

occurs on re-exposure to same Ag, memory cells respond within hours

41

Active humoral immunity

B cells encounter Ags and produce Abs against them

42

What type of immunity is a response to infection

Active humoral, naturally acquired

43

What type of immunity responds to vaccine containing dead or attenuated pathogens?

Active humoral, artificially acquired

44

Passive humoral immunity

ready-made ABs introduced into body

45

What type of immunity has Abs delivered to fetus via placenta or to infant through milk?

Passive immunity, naturally acquired

46

What type of immunity has an injection of Abs from immune donor?

Passive immunity- artificially acquired

47

Proteins secreted by PCs in reponse to an Ag, capable of bindning specifically with that Ag

Ab

48

What are the four defensive mechanisms?

1. Neutralization
2. Aggultination
3. Precipitation
4. Complement fixation

49

Abs block specific sites on viruses or bacterial toxins; prevents binding to receptors on tissue cells

neutralization

50

Abs bind to target cells membrane

complement fixation

51

Soluble molecules are cross-linked

Precipitation

52

Abs bind to more than once cell-bound Ab at a time

Agglutination

53

Activated by a foreign Ag only when it is on the surface of a cell that also carries a self-Ag

T cells

54

What are the 3 APCs?

B cells, macrophages, and DCs

55

What type MHC do CD8s bind?

MHC I

56

What type of MHC do CD4s bind?

MHC II

57

Found on surface of all nucleated cells; display endogenous Ag

MHC I

58

Found only on surface of APCs; display of exogenuos Ag

MHC II

59

Release perforin and granzymes

NK cells and CD8

60

What do Th cells secrete?

cytokines