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Flashcards in The Heart Deck (100):
1

what is the sequence in the pulmonary circuit?

heart-> pulmonary arteries -> pulmonary capillaries -> pulmonary veins -> heart

2

What is special about the pulmonary arteries?

Arteries usually consist of oxygenated blood, however these arteries consists of deoxygenated blood

3

What is the sequence in the systemic circuit?

heart -> systemic arteries -> systemic capillaries -> systemic veins -> heart

4

Where is the apex in terms of the 4 chambers?

The apex is located in the let ventricle

5

What are the 2 parts of the pericardium and their relative location?

the fibrous pericardium and is superficial to the serous pericardium which is deep

6

What is the function of the fibrous pericardium?

protection, anchoring the heart to surrounding structures and prevents overfilling with blood

7

What is the fibrous skeleton of the heart?

dense connective tissue network that anchors cardiac muscle fibers, supports vessels and valves, and limits spread of action potentials

8

What separates the 2 atria?

interatrial septum

9

What separates the 2 ventricles?

interventricular septum

10

Which surface marker separates the atria from the ventricles both anteriorly and posteriorly?

coronary sulcus

11

Which 2 surface markings divide the 2 ventricles?

the anterior and posterior interventricular sulcus

12

What is the purpose of the atria?

they are the receiving chambers

13

How much activity do the atria contribute the pumping blood?

little

14

How many auricles are there and their purpose?

2: right and left
The purpose of the auricles are to aid the atria by slightly increasing the volume

15

What muscles are located in the wall of the right atrium and auricles?

pectinate muscles

16

Which marking is present in the fetus, but once born becomes a bone marking?

fossa ovalis

17

What is the function of the fossa ovalis n a fetus?

to pump blood between the right and left atria

18

What pumps blood into the right atrium? From where?

Superior vena cava: from above diaphragm

Inferior vena cava: from below diaphragm

Coronary sinus: from myocardium

19

Is blood in the right atrium deoxygenated or oxygenated?

deoxygenated

20

What pumps blood into the left atrium? From where?

the pulmonary veins, from the lungs

21

Is the blood in the left atrium deoxygenated or oxygenated?

oxygenated

22

What are the ventricles referred to as?

the discharging chambers

23

What connects the papillary muscles to valve cusps?

chordae tendiane

24

What is the function of the pulmonary trunk?

carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs

25

What is the function of the aorta?

carry oxygenated blood to the body

26

Which side is the pulmonary circuit pump?

right side

27

Which side is the systemic circuit pump?

left side

28

What causes the valves to open and close?

response to changes n pressure

29

What prevents backflow into the atria when the ventricles contract?

Atrioventricular (AV) valves

30

What are the 2 types of AV valves and their location?

tricupsid valve- right
bicuspid (mitral) valve- left

31

Which internal feature tightens, preventing valve flaps from everting into atria?

chordae tendinae

32

Which 2 valves prevent backflow into ventricles when ventricles relax?

Aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves

33

What supplies the arteries with blood?

right and left coronary arteries

34

What collects venous blood?

cardiac veins

35

How are adjacent cells joined in the cardiac muscle cell?

via intercalated discs

36

What are the 3 components that comprise the intercalated disc?

desmosomes and gap junctions

37

Of the 2 components of the intercalated disc which prevent cells from separting?

desmosomes

38

Of the 2 components which allow ions to pass from cell to cell?

gap junctions

39

True or False. Some cardiac muscles are not excitable.

False. Some are self excitable

40

True or False. Some cardiac muscle cells contract as a unit or not at all.

True

41

These have the ability to depolarize spontaneously and pace heart.

cardiac pacemaker cells

42

These are responsible for heart's pumping activity.

contractile muscle fibers

43

What are the 3 stages in AP of contractile cardiac cells? Include what occurs at each stage.

1. Depolarization. Na+ enters the cell
2. Plateau phase- Ca2+ enters the cell
3. Repolarization. K+ leaves the cell

44

What is angina pectoris?

severe chest pain due to ischemia. O2- deprives cells shift to anaerobic glycolysis causing lactic acid stimulates pain receptors

45

What occurs during myocardial infarction?

sudden death of myocardial cells resulting from prolonged coronary blockage

46

What initiates AP in the heart?

Pacemaker potentials

47

What are the 3 parts of the AP of pacemaker cells?

1. Pacemaker potential
2. Depolarization
3. Repolarization

48

What occurs during pacemaker potential?

spontaneous depolarization that trigger AP once threshold is reached

49

What occurs during AP of Pacemaker cells?

Depolarization- Ca2+ channels open entering the cell

Repolarization: K+ leaves cell

50

What is the sequence of excitation of pacemaker cells?

1. SA node -> AV node -> AV bundles -> Right and left branches -> Purkinje fibers

51

SA node

Located in the wall of the right atrium, initiates each heartbeat and determines heart rate

52

AV node

Inferior interatrial septum. Allows atria to finish contracting before ventricles contract

53

AV bundle

Superior Interventriclar septum. only electrical connection between atria and ventricles

54

Right and left bundle branches

run along interventricular septum and toward heart apex

55

Purkinje fibers

interventcular septum -> heart apex -> ventricular walls

56

What is an ECG/EKG?

Electrocardiogram. composite reading of all APs generated by pacemaker and contractile cells at a given time

57

What occurs at P wave? QRS complex? T wave?

P wave: atrial depolarization

QRS complex: ventricular depolarization

T wave: ventricular repolarization

58

When does atrial repolarization occur?

during QRS complex, specifically R wave

59

What causes a P wave?

atrial depolarization, initiated by SA node

60

What occurs after atrial depolarization?

the impulse is delayed at the AV node

61

What causes QRS complex?

ventricular depolarization begins at apex, atrial repolarization occurs

62

What causes the T wave?

ventricular repolarization begins at apex

63

What type of rhythm occurs when SA node is nonfunctional so the AV node is at 40-60 beats/min?

Junctional rhythm

64

What is called when the pacemaker is abnormal?

ectopic focus

65

What is the impaired transmission of impulses through AV node?

Heart block

66

Define ventricular fibrillation.

rapid, irregular contractions; heart cannot pump blood

67

When is lub heard?

when AV closes

68

When is dub heard?

when SL valves closes

69

What is indicated when there is a valve problem?

abnormal heart sound, heart murmur

70

Define systole and diastole.

Systole: period of contraction
Diastole: period of relaxation

71

What are the phases of the cardiac cycle?

1. Ventricular filling
2. Ventricular systole
a. Isovolumetric Contraction
b. Ventricular Ejection
3. Isovolumetric Relaxation

72

What is occurring at the beginning and ending of ventricular?

Beginning: AV open, SL valves close, blood flows passively into ventricles, ventricular pressure is low


Ending: Atria contract, ventricles have max amount of blood they will contain

73

What is occurring in Isovolumetric Contraction phase?

AV valves close, SL valves close, ventricles contract

74

What is occurring in Ventricular ejection?

AV valves are close, SL Valves open, ventricular pressure has increased,, blood expelled from heart

75

What is occurring in Isovolumetric Relaxation

Ventricles relax, SL vales close when pressure in ventricles are less than pressure in aorta and pulmonary trunk

76

How do you calculate cardiac cycle length?

60 sec/# beats

77

What is Cardiac output?

amount of blood pumped out by each ventricle in 1 minute HRxSV

78

What is SV?

volume of blood pumped out by a ventricle with each beat

79

What is the normal CO?

5.25L/min

80

Difference between maximum and resting CO

Cardia reserve

81

What is the typical for nonathletic and world-class athletes?

Non: 4-5 times
Athletes: 7x

82

EDV

End diastolic volume. Volume of blood in each ventricle at the end of ventricular diastole

83

ESV

End Systolic Volume. Volume of blood remaining in each ventricle after it has contracted

84

What is the equation for SV?

EDV-ESV

85

What are three main factors that affect SV?

Preload, Contractility, and afterload

86

Preload

degree to which cardiac muscle cells are stretched before they contract; increase EDV

87

Frank-Sterling law of heart

SV increases in response to an increase in EDV

88

Contractility

contractile strength achieved at a given preload, increase ESV

89

Afterload

pressure in aorta and pulmonary trunk, decrease in ESV

90

What factors influence HR?

ANS, chemicals, age, gender, and exercise

91

What type of innervation speeds up depolarization of SA node and release NE?

Sympathetic innervation

92

What type innervation hyperpolarizes SA node and causes the vagus to release ACh?

Parasympathetic innervation

93

Tachycardia

100 beats/min rapid heart beat

94

Bradycardia

60 beats/min slow heart beat

95

What causes congestive heart failure?

Failure of either ventricle to eject blood effectively

96

If the left side causes congestive heart failure, what are the results?

Left side does not adequately eject returning blood, causing pulmonary edema

97

If the right side causes congestive heart failure, what are the results?

blood backs up into the vena cava and fluid leaks into issue spaces causing peripheral edema

98

In a fetus, why is little blood send through pulmonary circuit?

lungs are not yet functional

99

What are 2 structures in a fetus that allow blood to bypass pulmonary circuit?

foramen ovale( left and right atria) and ductus arteriosus (pulomnary trunk to aorta)

100

When baby takes first breath what happens to the ductus arteriosus?

it constricts and forms the ligamentum arteriosum