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Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (113):
1

At a constant temperature, the amount of a gas that dissolves in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid

Henry's Law

2

How much of a gas will dissolve in a liquid at a given partial pressure also depends on what?

Solubility of the gas

3

How many more times is CO2 more soluble than O2?

20x

4

As compared to atmospheric gas, alveolar gas contains what amounts of O2?CO2?H20?

less, more, and more

5

Gas exchange across respiratory membrane

external respiration

6

What factors influence external respiration?

thickness and SA of respiratory membrane, Partial pressure gradients and gas solubilities

7

What is the average thickness of the respiratory membrane in healthy lungs?

0.5-1 m thick

8

Gas exchange between systemic capillaries and tissue cells

internal respiration

9

What occurs during internal respiration?

O2 moves from blood into tissue and CO2 moves from tissues into blood

10

Which 2 ways is O2 transported in the blood?

1. Bound to Hb
2. Dissolved in plasma

11

Reduced Hb (deoxyHb)

HB that has released O2

12

Define. Hb saturation

extent to which Hb is combined with O2

13

How many O2 are bound to heme to be considered to be fully saturated?

4

14

How manyO2 are bound to heme to be considered partially saturated?

1-3 O2

15

What describes the relationship between the local Po2 and Hb saturation?

oxygen-Hb dissociation curve

16

In blood leaving lungs when the P02 is at 100 mmHg how saturated is Hb?

98% saturated

17

At resting tissues, what are the values for partial pressure of O2 and Hb saturation?

Po2= 40 mmHg
Hb saturation: 75%

18

Which 4 factors affect Hb at a given Po2?

temperature, pH, 2-3,BPG, and Pco2

19

What are the effects of the increase of temperature, H+, Pco2, or BPG?

Hb unloads O2 more easily
Curve shifts to the right
%Hb saturation ill be lower

20

What are the functions of the respiratory system?

to obtain O2 for use by body cells and to eliminate CO2 that cells produce

21

What are the 4 processes in respiration?

1. Pulmonary ventilation
2. External Respiration
3. Transport of gases
4. Internal Respiration

22

What are the major organs of the respiratory system?

nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs and alveoli

23

Site of gas exchange

respiratory zone

24

All other respiratory passageways that cleanse, and humidify and warm air

conducting zone

25

Which organs are a part of the respiratory zones?

respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli

26

Provides airway for respiration, filters inspired air, moisten and warms inspired air, houses olfactory receptors

the nose

27

Opens to exterior via nostrils

eternal nose

28

Continuous with pharynx via posterior nasal apertures

nasal cavity

29

Bony structure in the nasal cavity

hard palate

30

Muscular structure in the nasal cavity

soft palate

31

Lines upper respiratory tract and moistens, warms, and filters incoming air

respiratory mucosa

32

Increase mucosal surface area and enhance air turbulence

nasal conchae

33

Warm and moisten air and lighten skull

Paranasal sinuses (frontal, ethmoid, and maxillary)

34

Connects nasal cavity and mouth to larynx and esophagus

pharynx

35

Openings of auditory tubes. Epithelium?

nasopharynx. Pseudostratified columnar

36

Where is the pharyngeal tonsil located?

nasopharynx

37

Passageway for air and food. epithelium?

oropharynx. Stratified squamous

38

Where are the palatine and lingual tonsils located?

oropharynx

39

Provides a patent airway, routes air and food into proper channels and voice production.

larynx

40

Composed of nine cartilages

larynx

41

"Adam's apple"

thyroid cartilage

42

Vibrate as air rushes up from lungs

vocal folds (true vocal cords)

43

Help close glottis during swallowing

vestibular folds (false vocal cords)

44

What type of epithelium is the trachea composed?

pseudostratified columnar epithelium

45

What connects the trachea?

trachealis

46

Air passages undergo 23 order of branching

bronchial tree

47

What is the sequence of the conducting zone?

trachea -> right and left main bronchi -> lobar bronchi -> segmental bronchi

48

If a bronchiole is >0.5mm

terminal bronchioles

49

As airways become progressively smaller what are 3 things that change?

1. support structures change
2. epithelium type changes
3. amount of smooth muscle increases

50

What define a respiratory zone?

the presence of alveoli

51

What is the pathway of the respiratory zone?

terminal bronchioles -> respiratory bronchioles-> alveolar ducts -> aveolar sacs

52

Alveolar walls are primarily what type of cells? epithelium?

type 1 alveolar cells. simple squamous epithelium

53

Type II alveolar cells consist of what type of epithelium?

scattered cuboidal

54

What is the function of alveolar macrophages?

keep surface sterile

55

What are the 3 components of the respiratory membrane?

pulmonary capillary walls, alveolar walls, and their fused basement membrane

56

How many lobes are in each lung?

L: 2 superior and inferior
R: 3 superior, middle, and inferior

57

From the heart to the body back to the heart list the order of events in pulomonary circulation.

heart -> pulmonary trunk -> pulmonary arteries -> pulmonary capillaries -> pulmonary veins -> heart

58

In pulmonary circulation where is oxygenated and deoxygenated blood located?

Deoxygenated blood is in the pulmonary trunk and arteries. Oxygenated blood is located in the pulmonary veins

59

Covers external lung surface

visceral pleura

60

Covers thoracic wall, superior surface of diaphragm, and lateral walls of mediastinum

parietal pleura

61

Allow lungs to glide over thoracic wall and surface tension separation of pleurae

pleural cavity

62

Inspiration

period when air flows into the lungs

63

Expiration

period when air flows out of the lungs

64

Pressure around 760 mmHg at sea level exerted by air surrounding body

Atmospheric pressure

65

Pressure in alveoli that rises and falls with breathing, but always equalizes with Patm

Intrapulmonary pressure

66

Pressure in pleural cavity that rises ad falls with breathing, but always negative relative to atmospheric and intrapulmonary

intrapleural pressure

67

By how mmHg is Pip less than Patm and Ppul

-4mmHg

68

What are the 2 forces that act to pull lungs away from thorax wall and cause lungs to collapse?

lungs natural tendency to recoil and surface tension of alveolar fluid

69

What opposes lung collapsing forces?

elastic recoil of chest wall

70

What type of pressure prevents the lungs from collapsing? Difference between Ppul and Pip

transpulmonary pressure

71

Pneumothorax

air in pleural cavity

72

At constant temperature, pressure of a gas varies inversely with its volume

Boyle's law

73

What are the muscles involved in inspiration?

diaphragm and external intercostals

74

During inspiration, what is the action of the diaphragm?

When contracting, moves inferiorly and flattens

75

During expiration, what is the action of the diaphragm?

dome shaped and superior

76

During inspiration, what is the action of the external intercostals?

contraction lifts rib cage and pulls sternum superiorly and ribs swing outward

77

Is inspiration a passive or active process?

active

78

When the inspiratory muscles contract, what happens to the volume in the thoracic cavity?

volume increases

79

Is expiration a passive or active process?

passive

80

When the inspiratory muscles relax what happens to the volume in the thoracic cavity?q

volume decreases

81

During expiration, what muscles help depress the rib cage?

internal intercostal muscles

82

What secretes surfactant?

type 11 alveolar cells

83

Reduces surface tension of alveolar fluid and prevents collapse of alveoli between breaths

surfactant

84

Condition of insufficient surfactant in premature infants

infant respiratory distress syndrome

85

Amount of air moved into and out of lungs with each breath

tidal volume

86

Amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled beyond tidal volume

inspiratory reserve volume

87

Amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled beyond tidal volume

expiratory reserve volume

88

Air remaining in lungs after a forced expiration

residual volume

89

What is the value associated with residual volume?

1200 ml

90

What is the value associated with inspiratory reserve volume?

3100 ml

91

What is the value associated with tidal volume?

500 ml

92

What is the value associated with expiratory reserve volume?

1200 ml

93

How to calculate total lung capacity?

TV+IRV+ERV+RV

94

How to calculate vital capacity?

TV+IRV+ERV

95

What are the partial pressures of 02 & CO2 when blood is entering pulmonary capillaries?

O2: 40 mmHg
CO2: 45 mmHg

96

What are the partial pressures of 02 & CO2 when blood is leaving i pulmonary capillaries?

O2: 100mmHg
CO2: 40 mmHg

97

In order what are the 3 ways CO2 is transported in blood?

1. As bicarbonate ions
2,. Combined with Hb
3. Dissolved in plasma

98

At the tissue level, bicarbonate ions diffuse out what into plasma?

RBCs

99

In the lungs COs diffuses out of what? and into what?

out of RBCs and into alveoli

100

What are the 2 medullary respiratory centers?

ventral and dorsal respiratory group

101

Sets normal respiratory rate

VRG

102

Stimulate neurons that innervate inspiratory muscles?

inspiratory neurons

103

Inhibit inspiratory neurons

expiratory neurins

104

What is normal respiratory rate called?

eupnea

105

Integrates input from sensory receptors and sends indo to VRG

DRG

106

Transmit impulses to VRG to modify and fine-tune breathing rhythms and smooth out transitions from inspiration to expiration

pontine respiratory centers

107

Which factors influence respiratory rate and depth?Detected by?

Arterial blood CO2, O2, and pH

Central and peripheral chemoreceptors

108

Located in the brain stem and responds to H+ in brain ECF?

central chemoreceptors

109

Located in aortic arch and carotid arteries that respond to CO2, O2, & H+ in arterial blood

peripheral chemoreceptors

110

What depresses respiratory centers?

hypoxia

111

What stimulates respiratory centers ti increase ventilation?

peripheral chemoreceptors

112

What is the most powerful stimulus for respiration?

rising CO2 levels

113

Arterial Po2 falling below 60mmHg, becomes a primary stimulus for what?

respiration