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Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (75):
1

What is the Endocrine System?

glands, tissues, and cells that secrete hormones

2

What are 2 properties of the endocrine glands?

produce hormones and lack ducts

3

List the endocrine glands

pituitary glands, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal lands and pineal gland

4

List non-endocrine glands

hypothalamus, pancreas, ovaries and testes, and placenta

5

State the differences between Nervous and Endocrine system

Nervous: neurotransmitter, local, responds quickly, and stops quickly

Endocrine: hormones, general and widespread, responds slowly, and persist after stimulus stops

6

What are the 2 types of hormones?

amino acid-based and steroids

7

Which type of hormones are synthesized from cholesterol?

steroids

8

List hormones that are steroids

testosterone, estrogen, aldosterone, cortisol, and progesterone

9

How do hormones alter activity of target cells?

opening or closing ion channels, stimulating protein synthesis, activating or deactivating enzymes, inducing secretions, and stimulating mitosis

10

How do water-soluble hormones interact with target cells?

cannot enter target cells, act on receptors in plasma membrane, and coupled by G proteins to intracellular second messengers

11

How do lipid-soluble hormones interact with target cells?

can enter target cells, and act on intracellular receptors that directly activate genes

12

What are the steps in the cAMP signaling?

1. Hormone binds receptor
2. Receptor activates G protein
3. G protein activates adenylate cyclase
4. Adenylate cyclase converts ATP to cAMP
5. cAMP activates protein kinases

13

What non-steroid hormones also uses this mechanism?

Thyroid hormone

14

What are the steps of the intracellular receptors?

1. The steroid hormone diffuses through the plasma membrane and binds to an intracellular receptor
2. The receptor hormone complex enters the nucleus
3. The receptor-hormone complex binds a hormone response element
4. Binding initiates transcription to the gene to mRNA
5. The mRNA directs protein synthesis

15

What is up-regulation compared to down-regulation?

up-regulation increases the cell number of receptors which then becomes more sensitive to a while down-regulation reduces cell number of receptors which then becomes less sensitive to a hormone

16

What are the 3 ways that multiple hormones that act on same target?

permissiveness, synergism, and antagonism

17

Describe synergism. give an example

two or hormones act together to produce an effect that is greater then sum of their separate effects. EP and glucagon

18

Define permissiveness. Give an example

one hormone cannot exert its full effects without another hormone being present. Estrogen and progesterone

19

Define antagonism. Give an example

one hormone opposes action of another hormone. Insulin and glucagon

20

What are the three types of stimuli?

humoral, neural, and hormonal

21

How is hormone synthesis and secretion regulated?

by negative feedback

22

Which hormones respond to neural stimuli?

oxytocin, ADH, NE, and EP

23

Which hormones respond to humoral stimuli?

Calcitonin, PTH, insulin, and glucagon

24

Which hormones respond to hormonal stimuli?

ALL pituitary hormones, TH, testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone

25

What is another name for the pituitary gland?

hypophysis

26

What connects the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary?

infundibulum

27

What is the pos. pituitary glands composed?

neural tissue

28

What is the ant. pituitary composed?

glandular tissue

29

What runs through the infundibulum and formed by axons of neurons?

hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract

30

What allows the ant. pituitary respond to the hormones secreted b the hypothalamus?

hypophyseal portal system

31

Which 2 hormones are secreted by the post. pituitary?

ADH and oxytocin

32

What are the functions of oxytocin?

triggers milk ejection and uterine contractions during childbirth

33

What are the function of ADH?

prevents large amounts of urine production by stimulating kidney tubule cells to reabsorb water and return to blood stream

34

What results when there is ADH deficiency?

diabete inspidous

35

What are the Six hormones secreted by the ant pituitary?

Prolactin, FSH, TSH, ACTH, LH, GH

36

Which hormones increase glucose levels?

GH, cortisol, glucagon EP and NE

37

GH

Promotes cartilage and bone growth and increases protein synthesis

38

What homeostatic imbalance occurs with hypersecretion of GH at epiphyseal plate?

gigantism

39

What homeostatic imbalance occurs due to hypersecretion after epiphyseal plate closure?

acromegaly

40

What homeostatic imbalance occurs due to hyposecretion of GH prior to epiphyseal plate closer?

pituitary dwarfism

41

PRL

Prolactin. stimulates milk production

42

TSH

Thyroid stimulating. stimulates normal development and secretory activity of thyroid

43

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic. stimulates adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoid hormone

44

FSH & LH

Regulate function of gonads

45

Which two hormones does the thyroid secrete?

TH and calcitonin

46

Which type of cells synthesize thyroglobulin?

follicle cells

47

Which type of cells synthesize calcitonin?

parafollicular cells

48

Which two compounds comprise TH?

thyroxine and triiodthronine

49

TH

Increase metabolic rate and body heat production. Plays important role in regulating development and maturation of skeletal, nervous, and reproductive systems

50

What is the role of I-

1. Iodide is trapped then converted to iodine.
2. I- is attached to Tyr in the colloid then linked together to form T4

51

What hormone does the hypothalamus secrete to to promote TH?

TRH: Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

52

What hormone does the ant. pituitary secrete to promote TH?

TSH. Thyroid-stimulating

53

What is myxdemia?

hypothyroidism in adults

54

How can myxdemia lease to a goiter?

if there is a lack of I-

55

What is cretinism?

hypothyroidism in infants

56

What is Graves' disease?

hyperthyroidism due to abnormal Abs that mimic TSH and that secrete TH

57

Calcitonin

lowers Ca2+ levels

58

PTH

increase Ca2+ levels, increase reabsorption of Ca2+ in kidneys

59

What are the two parts of the adrenal glands?

adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex

60

Which part of the adrenal glands produce corticosteroids?

adrenal cortex

61

Which part of the adrenal gland takes part in the sympathetic division

adrenal medulla

62

Aldosterone

stimulates NA+ and a mineralocorticoid

63

Cortisol

promotes gluconeogensis, mobilizes fas from adipose, stimulates breakdown of stored proteins and a glucocorticoid

64

What occurs when cortisol is at high concentrations?

inhibits inflammation and depresses the immune system

65

What is Cushing's syndrome?

excess of glucocorticoid, elevated blood glucose, facial swelling, and "buffalo hump"

66

Which two hormones does the adrenal medulla secrete?

NE and EP

67

How does the adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex respond to stress?

Adrenal medulla: short-term stress
Adrenal cortex- long-term stress

68

What hormone does the pineal gland secrete?

melatonin

69

Melatonin

Influence rhythmic variations in physiological processes

70

What classifies the pancreas as a "mixed gland?"

It consists of both endo- and exo- gland cells

71

What component contribute to the endo-?

pancreatic islets

72

Which cell typed produce insulin and glucagon?

Beta- insulin
Alpha- glucagon

73

Glucagon

increase blood glucose by targeting liver cells

74

Insulin

lowers blood glucose

75

What are the three cardinal signs of diabetes mellitus?

polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia