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Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (75)
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1

What is the Endocrine System?

glands, tissues, and cells that secrete hormones

2

What are 2 properties of the endocrine glands?

produce hormones and lack ducts

3

List the endocrine glands

pituitary glands, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal lands and pineal gland

4

List non-endocrine glands

hypothalamus, pancreas, ovaries and testes, and placenta

5

State the differences between Nervous and Endocrine system

Nervous: neurotransmitter, local, responds quickly, and stops quickly

Endocrine: hormones, general and widespread, responds slowly, and persist after stimulus stops

6

What are the 2 types of hormones?

amino acid-based and steroids

7

Which type of hormones are synthesized from cholesterol?

steroids

8

List hormones that are steroids

testosterone, estrogen, aldosterone, cortisol, and progesterone

9

How do hormones alter activity of target cells?

opening or closing ion channels, stimulating protein synthesis, activating or deactivating enzymes, inducing secretions, and stimulating mitosis

10

How do water-soluble hormones interact with target cells?

cannot enter target cells, act on receptors in plasma membrane, and coupled by G proteins to intracellular second messengers

11

How do lipid-soluble hormones interact with target cells?

can enter target cells, and act on intracellular receptors that directly activate genes

12

What are the steps in the cAMP signaling?

1. Hormone binds receptor
2. Receptor activates G protein
3. G protein activates adenylate cyclase
4. Adenylate cyclase converts ATP to cAMP
5. cAMP activates protein kinases

13

What non-steroid hormones also uses this mechanism?

Thyroid hormone

14

What are the steps of the intracellular receptors?

1. The steroid hormone diffuses through the plasma membrane and binds to an intracellular receptor
2. The receptor hormone complex enters the nucleus
3. The receptor-hormone complex binds a hormone response element
4. Binding initiates transcription to the gene to mRNA
5. The mRNA directs protein synthesis

15

What is up-regulation compared to down-regulation?

up-regulation increases the cell number of receptors which then becomes more sensitive to a while down-regulation reduces cell number of receptors which then becomes less sensitive to a hormone

16

What are the 3 ways that multiple hormones that act on same target?

permissiveness, synergism, and antagonism

17

Describe synergism. give an example

two or hormones act together to produce an effect that is greater then sum of their separate effects. EP and glucagon

18

Define permissiveness. Give an example

one hormone cannot exert its full effects without another hormone being present. Estrogen and progesterone

19

Define antagonism. Give an example

one hormone opposes action of another hormone. Insulin and glucagon

20

What are the three types of stimuli?

humoral, neural, and hormonal

21

How is hormone synthesis and secretion regulated?

by negative feedback

22

Which hormones respond to neural stimuli?

oxytocin, ADH, NE, and EP

23

Which hormones respond to humoral stimuli?

Calcitonin, PTH, insulin, and glucagon

24

Which hormones respond to hormonal stimuli?

ALL pituitary hormones, TH, testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone

25

What is another name for the pituitary gland?

hypophysis

26

What connects the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary?

infundibulum

27

What is the pos. pituitary glands composed?

neural tissue

28

What is the ant. pituitary composed?

glandular tissue

29

What runs through the infundibulum and formed by axons of neurons?

hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract

30

What allows the ant. pituitary respond to the hormones secreted b the hypothalamus?

hypophyseal portal system