Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (98)
List the functions of the kidneys
1. regulation of fluid, volume, ion concentration, and acid-base balance
2. excretion of metabolic toxins, and drugs
3. Hormone production
4. metabolic function (vitamin D to active form)
What are the three layer of supportive tissue in the kidney? Function of each?
1. Renal fascia- anchors
2. Perirenal fat capsule- provides cushion
3. Fibrous capsule- limits spread of infection
What are the 2 regions of the kidney?
renal cortex and renal medulla
List the sequence of urine flow
renal pyramid -> minor calcyx -> major calycx -> renal pelvis -> ureter
Empty into inferior vena cava
Deliver 1/4 total cardiac output to kidneys each minute
Structural and functional unit of kidney
What are the main parts of a nephron?
renal corpuscle and renal tubule
What are 2 parts of a renal corpuscle?
glomerulus and glomerular capsule
What are the 2 layers of a glomerulus capsule?
parietal and visceral layer
What is the parietal layer composed of in the glomeruluar capsule?
simple squamous epithelium
Where are podocytes located in the nephron?
in the visceral layer of the glomerular capsule
What are the 3 parts of the renal tubule?
PCT, loop of Henle, and DCT
Cuboidal epithelial cells with dense microvilli and confined to cortex
Descending and ascending limbs
loop of Henle
Cuboidal cells with few microvilli and confined to cortex
Receives filtrate from many nephrons and delivers urine into minor calcyes
What are the 2 classes of nephrons?
cortical and juxtamedullary
Which class of nephron extends deep into medulla?
Which class of nephrons is 85% of nephrons?
What is related to the length of the loop?
List the sequence of the nephron capillary bed?
renal artery -> afferent arteriole -> glomerulus efferent arteriole -> peritubular capillaries -> renal vein
How does the glomerulus differ from all other capillary beds?
fed and drained by arterioles and high BP (55 mmHg)
Adapted for absorption of water and solutes and low pressure
Long, straight vessels that supple loops of Henle of juxtamedullary nephrons
Region where distal portion of ascending limb LOH lies against afferent arteriole
Juxtaglomerular complex (JGC)
What are the 2 major cell populations in the JGC?
macula densa and granular cells