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Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (98)
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1

List the functions of the kidneys

1. regulation of fluid, volume, ion concentration, and acid-base balance
2. excretion of metabolic toxins, and drugs
3. Hormone production
4. metabolic function (vitamin D to active form)

2

What are the three layer of supportive tissue in the kidney? Function of each?

1. Renal fascia- anchors
2. Perirenal fat capsule- provides cushion
3. Fibrous capsule- limits spread of infection

3

What are the 2 regions of the kidney?

renal cortex and renal medulla

4

List the sequence of urine flow

renal pyramid -> minor calcyx -> major calycx -> renal pelvis -> ureter

5

Empty into inferior vena cava

Renal veins

6

Deliver 1/4 total cardiac output to kidneys each minute

renal arteries

7

Structural and functional unit of kidney

Nephron

8

What are the main parts of a nephron?

renal corpuscle and renal tubule

9

What are 2 parts of a renal corpuscle?

glomerulus and glomerular capsule

10

Collects filtrate

glomerular capsule

11

forms filtrate

glomerulus

12

What are the 2 layers of a glomerulus capsule?

parietal and visceral layer

13

What is the parietal layer composed of in the glomeruluar capsule?

simple squamous epithelium

14

Where are podocytes located in the nephron?

in the visceral layer of the glomerular capsule

15

What are the 3 parts of the renal tubule?

PCT, loop of Henle, and DCT

16

Cuboidal epithelial cells with dense microvilli and confined to cortex

PCTq

17

Descending and ascending limbs

loop of Henle

18

Cuboidal cells with few microvilli and confined to cortex

DCT

19

Receives filtrate from many nephrons and delivers urine into minor calcyes

collecting ducts

20

What are the 2 classes of nephrons?

cortical and juxtamedullary

21

Which class of nephron extends deep into medulla?

juxtamedullary

22

Which class of nephrons is 85% of nephrons?

cortical

23

What is related to the length of the loop?

urine concentration

24

List the sequence of the nephron capillary bed?

renal artery -> afferent arteriole -> glomerulus efferent arteriole -> peritubular capillaries -> renal vein

25

How does the glomerulus differ from all other capillary beds?

fed and drained by arterioles and high BP (55 mmHg)

26

Adapted for absorption of water and solutes and low pressure

peritubular capillaries

27

Long, straight vessels that supple loops of Henle of juxtamedullary nephrons

vasa recta

28

Region where distal portion of ascending limb LOH lies against afferent arteriole

Juxtaglomerular complex (JGC)

29

What are the 2 major cell populations in the JGC?

macula densa and granular cells

30

Chemoreceptors that monitor NaCl content of filtrate in the ascending limp of LOH

macula densa