Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

A&P II > Reproductive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reproductive System Deck (170):
1

Scrotum

contains paired testes and hangs outside abdominopelvic cavity

2

What winkles the scrotal skin?

dartos muscles

3

What elevates the testes?

cremaster muscle

4

What is the name of the serous membrane covering the testes?

tunica vaginalis

5

What is the fibrous capsule of testis?

tunica albuginea

6

What produces testosterone?

interstitial endocrine cells

7

What produces sperm?

seminiferous tubules

8

What are the testes divided into?

250 lobules

9

What encloses nerve fibers, blood vessels, lymphatics and ductus deferens?

spermatic cord

10

What are the major part of the penis?

root, shaft, glans penis and prepuse

11

What does the internal penis contain?

spongy urethra and 3 cylindrical of erectile tissue

12

What are the erectile tissue in the penis?

corpus spongiosum and corpus cavernosa(paired)

13

What is the order of the male duct system?

epididymsis-> ducyus deferens -> ejaculatory duct -> urethra

14

Site where sperm gain ability to swim

epididymis

15

stores sperm prior to ejaculation

epididymis

16

Epididymis

immature sperm conveyed from seminiferous tubules

17

Where does the epididymis empty into?

ductus deferens

18

Ductus deferens joins duct of what to form the ejaculatory duct?

seminal vesicle

19

Cutting and ligating ductus deferens

vasectomy

20

What are the 3 regions of the urethra?

1. prostatic urethra
2. membranous urethra
3. spongy urethra

21

Which of the accessory glands are paired?

seminal vesicles, bulbo-urethral glands and prostate

22

What contains 70% of semen volume?

seminal vesicle

23

What are the 2 components of semen?

fructose and prostaglandins

24

Contains up to 1/3 of semen volume

prostate

25

Pea-sized glands inferior to prostate

bublo-urethral glands

26

Bulbo-urethral glands

lubricates glans penis and neutralizes traces of urine

27

What are the functions of semen

1. provides transport medium for sperm
2. provides fuel for ATP synthesis
3. contains chemicals that enhance sperm motility

28

pH of sperm

7.2-8.0

29

Why is the pH of the sperm so basic?

this is because the vagina is acidic

30

How many total chromosomes in a diploid cell?

2n=46

31

How many chromosomes in a haploid cell?

n=23

32

Nuclear division process that occurs only in gonads?

meiosis

33

Prophase I

crossing over for genetic variation

34

Metaphase I

tetrads line up at metaphase plate

35

Anaphase I

homologous chromosomes separate

36

Product of meiosis I

2 diploid daughter cells

37

Product of meiosis II

4 genetically distinct haploid daughter cells

38

What is the function of meiosis?

introduce genetic variability

39

Sperm formation in seminiferous tubules

spermatogenesis

40

What are the major steps in the spermatogenesis?

1. Mitosis of spermatogonia
2. Meiosis
3. Spermiogenesis

41

Stem cells at outermost tubule

spermatogonia

42

Starting at puberty, each mitotic division become what?

type A and type B daughter cells

43

Which cell type remains at basal lamina?

type A

44

Which cell type moves toward lumen and becomes primary spermatocyte?

type B

45

What occurs during meiosis I to the primary spermatocyte?

it becomes 2 secondary spermatocytes

46

Are the cells haploid or diploid at primary spermatocyte?

diploid

47

Are the cells haploid or diploid at secondary spermatocytes?

haploid

48

During meiosis II what happens to the secondary spermatocyte?

2 spermatids

49

Are the cells haploid or diploid at the 2 spermatids?

haploid

50

Spermatid elongates loses excess cytoplasm and forms a tail

spermeogensis

51

what is another name for sperm?

spermaozoon

52

What are 3 major regions of a sperm?

1. head
2. midpiece
3. tail

53

Part of the sperm that has hydrolytic enzymes?

acrosome

54

What does the midpiece of the sperm contain?

mitochondria

55

Surround spermatogenic cells

sustentocytes

56

Sustentocytes

divide seminiferous tubule into basal compartment and adluminal compartment

57

Blood-testis barrier

tight junctions between sustentocytes

58

2 functions of the blood-testis barrier

1. prevents antigens of developing sperm from activating immune system
2. sperm absent during immune system development and so not recognizedas "self"

59

What lies outside blood-testis barrier in basal compartment?

spermatogonia

60

What is the purpose of tight junctions opening following mitosis?

type B daughter cells pass into adluminal compartment

61

What are other functions of sustentocytes?

1. provide nutrients to dividing cells
2. secrete testicular fluid for sperm transport
3. move cells toward lumen
4. produce chmical signals that help regulate spermatogenesis

62

Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis

hormonal interactions between hypothalamus, anterior pituitary and gonads

63

What does the hypothalamus releases?

GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone)

64

GnRH

FSH and LH

65

What is stimulated by sustentocytes to release androgen-binding protein?

FSH

66

What is the function of FSH stimulation in males?

keeps concentration of testosterone high near spermatogenic cells

67

What stimulates interstitial endocrine cells to release testosterone?

LH

68

What is the final trigger for spermatogenesis?

LH

69

What do rising levels of testosterone feed back and inhibit release of?

GnRH, FSH, snd LH

70

When sperm count is high, sustentocytes do what?

release inhibin to inhibit release of GnRH and FSH

71

What directly stimulates the testes?

gonadotropins

72

What stimulates the release of gonadotropins?

GnRH

73

What exerts negative feedback controls on hypothalamus and anterior pituitary?

Gonadal hormones

74

What are the function of testosterone?

1. stimulate spermatogenesis
2. stimulates maturation of accessory reproductive organs
3. promotes development of secondary sex characteristics
4. responsible for male libido

75

Featured induced in nonreproductive organs by male sex hormones at puberty

male secondary sex characteristics

76

List male secondary sex characteristics

1. increased oilness of skin
2. increased size and mass of bones and skeletal muscles
3. deepening of voice
4. appearance of pubic, axillary and facial hair

77

What organs are in the internal genitalia in a female?

ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus and vagina

78

What organs are in the external genitalia in a female?

mons pubis, labia majora and minora, and clitoris

79

What surrounds the ovaries?

tunica albuginea

80

What are the 2 regions in the ovaries?

outer cortex and inner medulla

81

Where are ovaries located?

embedded in cortex are ovarian follicles

82

Follicle cells

1 cell layer thick

83

Granulosa cells

more than 1 layer present

84

Ejection of oocyte from mature follicle

ovulation

85

What are the components of the female duct system?

uterine tubes -> uterus -> vagina

86

Does the female duct system make contact with ovaries?

no

87

What are the 2 functions of the uterine tubes?

1. receives ovulated oocyte
2. usual site of fertilization

88

What occurs during at ovulation?

beating cilia create currents that move oocyte into uterine tube then the oocyte carried toward uterus by peristalsis and ciliary action

89

What is the function of the uterus?

receives, retains, and nourishes fertilized ovum

90

What are the 3 layers of the uterine wall?

perimetrium, myometrium and endometrium

91

What are the 2 layers of the endometrium?

stratum functionalis and stratum basails

92

What sheds during menstruation?

stratum functionalis

93

What forms new stratum functionalis?

stratum basalis

94

Thin-walled tube 8-10cm in length; extends from cervix to exterior

vagina

95

What are the functions of the vagina?

1. birth canal
2. female organ of copulation

96

Membrane that partially covers external vaginal opening

hymen

97

Fatty area overlying pubic symphysis

mons pubis

98

hair-covered, fatty skin folds and counterpart of male scrotum

labis majora

99

What is the hair-free folds enclose vestibule?

labia minora

100

flank vaginal opening

greater vestibule glands

101

What in a female is homologous to male bulbo-urethral bland?

Greater vestibular glands

102

In a female what secretes mucus for lubrication?

greater vestibular glands

103

In a female what is the male counterpart of the penis?

clitoris

104

What is the skin fold of the clitoris?

prepuce

105

What is the exposed portion of the clitoris?

glans

106

What is the pigmented skin surrounding the nipple?

areola

107

What attaches the breast to underlying muscles?

suspensory ligaments

108

Lobules within lobes contain alveoli produce what?

milk

109

What is the milk pathway in the mammary gland?

lactiferous ducts -> lactiferous sinuses

110

What is the production of the female gametes called?

oogenesis

111

When does oogeneis begin?

begins in the fetal period

112

What are 2n stem cells called in oogenesis? How do they multiply?

oogonia and multiply by mitosis

113

What develops in primordial follicles?

primary oocytes

114

Where do primary begin and stall?

begins in meiosis and stalls in prophase I

115

At birth, what is the female lifetime supply of primary oocytes?

1 million

116

At puberty, how many oocytes remain?

300,000-400,000

117

Each month after puberty what are activated?

few primary oocytes are activated

118

What are the results of the oogenesis?

2 haploid cells of different sizes

119

What are 2 cell types after the primary oocyte?

secondary oocyte and first polar body

120

What happens to the secondary oocyte in metaphase II and ovulation?

it stalls

121

What happens to secondary oocyte if not penetrated by sperm?q

deteriorates

122

What happens to the secondary oocyte if penetrated by sperm?

completes meiosis II

123

What is the result of meiosis II when the secondary oocyte penetrates sperm?

ovum and secondary polar body

124

How many viable sperm does spermatogenesis yield? Error rate?

4 viable sperm and 3-4% error rate

125

How many viable ovum and polar bodies does oogenesis yield? Error rate?

1 viable gamete and 3 polar bodies
30% error rate

126

Monthly series of events associated with maturation of egg

ovarian cycle

127

What are the phases in the ovarian cycle?

follicular and luteal phase

128

Follicular phase

period of follicle growth; days 1-14

129

Luteal phase

period of corpus luteum activity (days 14-28)

130

When does ovulation occur?

ovulation occurs midcycle of ovarian cycle

131

What are the steps in the follicular phase?

1. Primordial follicle is surrounded by a single layer of flattened follicle cells
2. Primordial follicle becomes primary follicle and the oocyte enlarges
3a. Primary follicle becomes secondary follicle; granulosa cells form around oocyte
3b. secondary follicle become late secondary follicle ; theca folliculi condenses around follicle and fluid accumulates between granulosa cells
4. Late secondary follicle becomes vesicular follicle; antrum begins to form
5. Primary oocyte completes meiosis I

132

What occurs during ovulation?

ovary wall ruptures, expels secondary oocyte with its corona radiata into peritoneal cavity

133

During conception if there is 1 egg and 1 sperm with same placenta and separate amniotic sacs, what type twins are the result?

identical twins

134

During conception if there are 2 eggs and 2 sperms, separate placenta and separate amniotic scas, what type twins are the result?

fraternal twins

135

What occurs in the luteal phase

1. ruptured follicle collapses forming corpus luteum; secretes progesterone and some estrogen

136

In the luteal phase, if no pregnancy what happens to corpus luteum?

it degenerates into corpus albicans (scar) in 10 days

137

In the luteal phase if pregnancy occurs what happens to the corpus luteum?

produces hormones until placenta takes over around 3 months

138

What happens in the ovarian cycle during childhood?

ovaries secrete small amounts of estrogens that inhibit hypothalmic release of GnRH

139

What happens to in the ovarian cycle as puberty nears?

Hypothalamus becomes less sensitive to estrogen; release GnRH

140

Approximately how long after puberty near does menarche occur?

after 4 years

141

In the ovarian cycle what does LH stimulate? Result of stimulation?

LH stimulates cells of theca folliculi which release androgens

142

In the ovarian cycle what does FSH stimulate? Result of stimulation?

FSH stimulates granulosa cells which convert androgens to estrogens

143

What inhibits gonadotropn release in females?

negative feedback

144

In females what inhibits FSH and LH during gonadatropin inhibition?

1. rising estrogen levels
2. rising inhibin levels (released by granulosa cells)

145

What stimulates gonadotropin release?

positive feedback

146

What is the cause of estrogen output?

dominant follicle

147

What happens once estrogen levels reach critical level?

brief positive feedback on hypothalamus and anterior pituitary

148

Sudden burstlike release of LH at midcycle

LH surge

149

What are the 3 effects of LH surge?

1. stimulates primary oocyte to complete meiosis I
2. triggers ovulation
3. transforms ruptured follicle into corpus luteum

150

What occurs when negative feedback inhibits LH and FSH release?

1. inhibits follicle maturation
2. prevents additional LH surges

151

What are the 4 events that occur if no fertilization?

1. LH levels fall
2. corpus luteum degenerates
3. estrogen and progesterone levels drop sharply
4. blockade of FSH and LH secretion ends

152

Cyclic changes in endometrium in response to fluctuating ovarian hormone levels

uterine cycle

153

What are the 3 phases in the uterine cycle?

1. Menstrual phase (days 1-5)
2. Proliferative phase (days 6-14)
3. Secretory phase (days 15-28)

154

What occurs during the menstrual phase?

1. stratum functionalis sheds (menstruation)
2. ovarian hormones at lowest levels
3. gonadotropins beginning to rise

155

What occurs during the proliferative phase?

1. stratum functionalis rebuilt (due to rising levels of estrogen)
2. ovulation occurs at end of proliferative phase

156

What 2 events occur during secretory phase?

endometrium prepares for embryo and rising progesterone levels

157

In what phase do progesterone levels rise? What 2 things does it prompt?

1. enrichment of blood supply
2. glandular secretion of nutrients

158

In the uterine cycle what occurs if there is no fertilization?

1. corpus luteum degenerates,
2. progerstone levels fall
3. spiral arteries kink, spasm, and relax
4. weakened capillary beds fragment (functional layer sloughs-off)

159

Which 2 phases in the in the uterine cycle overlap with which phase in the ovarian cycle?

the menstrual and proliferative phase overlaps with the follicular phase

160

What phase responds to a phase in the ovarian cycle?

the secretory phase corresponds to the luteal phase

161

List the 4 effects of estrogen

1. promotes oogenesis and follicle growth in ovary
2. exert anabolic effects n female reproductive tract
3. stimulate rapid but short-lived growth spurt at puberty
4. induce secondary sex characteristics

162

List the female secondary se characteristics

1. growth of breasts
2. deposition of subcutaneous fat
3. widening and lengthening of pelvis

163

What is the number of chromosomes in a human gamete?

23; haploid

164

What is the function of ABG?

keeps the concentration of testosterone in the vicinity of the spermatogenic cells high to stimulate spermatogenesi

165

Which layer of the uterus is the site for implantation of a fertilized egg

stratum functionalis layer of the endometrium

166

What part of the breast produces milk

alveoli

167

Which layer of the uterine wall is made of smooth muscle?

myometrium

168

What is the role of the corpus luteum?

to produce hormones that maintain the uterine lining during the first months of pregnancy

169

What type of cell is released during ovulation?

secondary oocyte

170

In males, which of the following includes the correct target and result of LH stimulation?

interstitial fluid to secrete testosterone