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A&P II > Blood Vessels > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood Vessels Deck (124):
1

What are the 3 types of blood vessels? Direction of fluid?

Arteries: away from the heart
Capillaries: sites of exchange
Veins: Toward the hear

2

State if the blood is oxygenated or deoxygenated in veins and arteries?

Arterties: oxygenated
Veins: Deoxygenated

3

What is the pathway of the vessels beginning from the heart?

elastic arteries -> muscular arteries -> arterioles -> capillaries -> venules -> veins

4

What type of blood do the veins and arteries carry in the systemic circulation?

arteries carry oxygenated blood and the veins carry deoxygenated blood

5

What type of blood do the veins and arteries carry in the pulmonary circulation?

arteries carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs and the veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart

6

What are the 3 layers in blood vessels from deep to superficial?

tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica externa

7

What is the space containing blood in the blood vessels?

lumen

8

Which layer of the blood vessel consist of smooth muscle and elastin, and muscle activity regulated by the vasomotor nerve fibers?

tunica media

9

Which layer in the blood vessel walls are connective tissue (collagen), reinforces vessels, and anchors it to nearby organs?

Tunica externa

10

Which layer in the blood contains blood in lumen, endothelium?

Tunica intima

11

What is the purpose of the endothelium in the blood vessel walls?

minimizes friction

12

Which layer in the blood vessels wall is responsible for vasodilation and vasoconstriction?

Tunica media

13

Which vessel consist of only the tunica intima?

capillaries

14

Which vessel consist of a thin tunica media and thick tunica externa?

veins

15

Which vessel consist of a thick tunica media and thin tunica externa?

arteries

16

What are the three types of arteries?

elastic, muscular, and arterioles

17

Also known as conducting arteries, these have a large, thick walls, arteries near the heart, tunica media with elastic tissue

elastic arteries

18

Also known as the distributing arteries, these arteries distribute blood to specific organs.

Muscular arteries

19

Leads into capillary beds, control minute by minute blood flow by vasoconstriction or vasodilation and important in BP regulation

arterioles

20

How do the elastic arteries act as pressure reservoirs?

expand during systole t receive blood and recoiling during diastole to push blood forward

21

What is the function of the capillaries?

exchange of materials between blood and interstitial fluid

22

What are the three structural types capillaries?

continuous, fenestrated, and sinusoid

23

Which type of capillary is the most common, primarily in the skin and muscles, and has intercellular clefts?

continuous

24

What is the function of intercellular clefts?

allow passage of fluids and small solutes

25

Which type of capillary is have endothelial cells that increase permeability, and found where absorption or filtrate formation occurs?

fenestrated capillaries

26

What is the location where absorption or filtrate occur in capillaries?

small intestine and kidneys

27

Which type of capillary has fenestrations, large intercellular clefts, and incomplete basement membrane, allows large molecules and blood cells t pass between blood and surrounding tissues?

sinusoid capillaries

28

What is the location that allows large molecules to pass between blood and surrounding tissues?

liver, bone marrow, and spleen

29

Which disorder has thicker and stiffer artery walls?

arteriosclerosis

30

Which disorder has lipid plaques form and protrude into vessel lumen?

atherosclerosis

31

What id a network of capillaries called?

capillary bed

32

Define microcirculation.

flow of blood from arteriole to venule

33

What directly connects arterioles and venule at opposite ends of bed?

vascular shunt

34

What are true capillaries?

actual exchange vessels

35

What is the function of the precapillary sphincter?

acts as a valve to regulate blood flow into the capillaries

36

What occurs when the precapillary sphincter closes?

blood flows through metarteriole thoroughfare channel and bypasses true capillaries

37

What do capillaries unite to form?

venules

38

What do venules join to form?

Veins

39

What do veins have that arteries DO NOT?

larger lumens and thinner walls, and valves

40

What's another name from veins?

capacitance vessels

41

Why do veins have such thin walls?

BP is relatively low and F is steady rather than pulsatile

42

What are varicose veins?

veins that are tortuous and dilated due to competent (leaky) valves. Promoted by conditions that impede venous return

43

What are interconnections between blood vessels?

Vascular anatomoses

44

Define Blood Flow (F).

volume of blood flowing through a vessel, organ, or entire circulation in a give time

45

What is a force that blood exerts against a vessel wall?

BP

46

True or False. The greater the difference in blood pressure, between 2 ends of a vessel, the greater the F through that vessel.

True

47

What is the opposition to flow that results from friction of blood against vessel walls?

Resistance

48

What are the three sources of resistance?

blood viscosity, total blood vessel length, and blood vessel diameter

49

For each source of resistance, state whether is increases or decreases resistance?

Viscosity: increases resistance

Blood vessel length: increases resistance

Blood vessel diameter: decreases resistance

50

What is systemic BP?

pumping action of heart generating F. Pressure results when flow is opposed by resistance

51

Where is Systemic BP highest and steepest?

highest in aorta and steepest in arterioles

52

What is the highest arterial BP of a cardiac cycle? Give name and number in mmHg

Systolic pressure. 120mmHg

53

What is the lowest arterial BP of a cardiac cycle? Give name and number in mmHg

Diastolic pressure. 70-80 mmHg

54

What is the pressure wave caused by alternating expansion and recoil of arteries during each cardiac cycle?

pulse

55

What is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressures?

pulse pressure

56

What is the average arterial pressure during a single cardiac cycle?

Mean arterial pressure (MAP)

57

As the distance increases from the heart, MAP and Pulse pressure due to what?

friction between blood and vessel walls and loss of elastic recoil

58

What range of numbers does BP decline in capillary BP?

35-17mmHg

59

What range of numbers does BP decline in venous BP?

17-0mmHg

60

Which 2 functional adaptations are important to venous return?

Muscular and respiratory pumps

61

How does the muscular pump functions?

skeletal muscle activity "milks" blood toward the heart

62

How does the respiratory pump functions?

pressure changes in ventral body cavity during breathing move blood toward heart

63

What are the 2 ways BP is controlled?

short term and long term regulation

64

Describe short-term regulation

alters BP by changing peripheral resistance and resistance. Neural and hormonal

65

Describe long-term regulation

alters BP by adjusting blood volume (kidneys)

66

Where are the cardio centers located and their function?

in the medulla oblongata and the function is to regulate heart rate and force of contraction

67

What are the 2 cardiac centers?

cardioacceleratory and cardioinhibitory

68

What is the function of he vasomotor center?

regulates blood vessel diameter

69

The role of the vasomotor center involved vasomotor fibers and tone, describe both.

Vasomotor fibers: transmits impulses at steady rate

Vasomotor tone: keep arterioles in state of moderate constriction

70

Which receptors respond to changes in arterial pressure and stretch?

Baroreceptors

71

Where are baroreceptors located?

carotid sinuses and aortic arch

72

When stretched where do baroreceptors send impulses?

cardiovascular center

73

How do baroreceptors respond when BP rises?

cardioinhibitory center is stimulated, cardioacceleratory center and vasomotor are inhibited. Parasympathetic

74

When BP rises in baroreceptors how do the blood vessels respond?

vasodilation

75

How do baroreceptors respond when BP drops?

cardioinhibitory center is inhibited, cardioacceleratory center and vasomotor center are stimulated

76

When BP rises in baroreceptors how do the blood vessels respond?

vasoconstriction

77

Which hormones are involved in short-term hormonal controls?

ADH, ANP, adrenal medulla hormones, and angiotensin II

78

What are the effects of NE and EP in short-term regulation?

increase BP, CO, & R

79

What are the effects of Angiotensin II in short-term regulation?

increases R, BP, and promotes vasoconstriction

80

What are the effects of ADH in short-term regulation?

increases R & BP, vasoconstriction

81

What are the effects of ANP in short-term regulation?

lowers BP, inhibits NA+ reabsorption, promotes vasodilation. Usually occurs after consuming NaCl

82

What is another name for long-term regulation?

Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Mechanism

83

What is the function of the long-term regulation?

kidneys restore and maintain BP homeostasis by regulating blood volume

84

What does the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Mechanism affect?

desire to drink and urine production

85

What is the sequence of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Mechanism ?

When BP or blood volume drops, kidneys releases renin, which act as an enzyme acting on angiotensinogen converting it to angiotensis I circulating in the plasma -> angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II

86

What are the results of Angiotensin II in long-term regulation?

vasoconstriction, increase R, activated thirsts center (in hypothalamus), stimulates release of ADH and aldosterone

87

What is hypertension?

sustained increased in either systolic or diastolic BP

88

Which type of hypertension has no underlying identifiable cause?

primary (essential)

89

Which type of hypertension is due to indentifiable disorders?

secondary

90

What is the BP of someone who has hypotension?

60/90

91

If Jack's BP suddenly rises from suddenly rising from reclining or sitting, what does he suffer from?

orthostatic hypotension

92

What is tissue perfusion?

F through body tissues

93

True or false. Velocity of F is directly related to total cross-sectional area of vascular bed

False. Velocity of F is inversely related...

94

What is the term defined as the ability of a tissue to automatically adjust its F to match its metabolic demands?

Autoregulation

95

How is autoregulation controlled?

by modifying diameter of arterioles

96

Why does vasodilation of arterioles and relaxation of precapillary sphincters occur?

decrease in O2 levels, accumulation of ions, and inflammatory chemicals

97

How does capillary exchanges occur?

movement of substances between blood plasma and interstitial fluid

98

Which mechanisms does capillary exchange use?

diffusion and bulk flow

99

How do liquid solubles move in capillary exchange?

via diffusion

100

How do molecules that are not liquid soluble move in capillary exchange?

through fenestrations or intercellular clefts

101

How do large substances move in capillary exchange?

vesicular transport

102

Define bulk flow.

movement of water and small solutes across capillary walls between blood and interstitial fluid

103

Filtration is movement inside or outside the capillaries?

outside

104

Reabsorption is movement inside or outside capillaries?

inside

105

Which type of pressure pushes water out by exerting force by pressing fluid against a wall?

Hydrostatic pressure

106

Which type of pressure pulls water in by large indiffusible molecules that are unable to cross capillary walls?

colloid osmotic pressure

107

Hpc

Capillary hydrostatic pressure. pushes fluid out of capillary into interstitial fluid

108

HPif

interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure. tends to push fluid into capillary. Usually assumed to be 0

109

OPc

capillary colloid osmotic pressure. tends to pull fluid into capillary. Mainly albumin

110

OPif

Interstitial fluid osmotic pressure. tends to pull fluid out of capillary

111

What are the outward pressures?

HPc and OPif

112

What are the inward pressures?

HPif and OPc

113

What is the equation for NFP?

(HPc+OPif)-(HPif+OPc)

114

If NFP is positive what does this indicate?

filtration HP>OP

115

If NFP is negative what does this indicate?

reabsorption OP>HP

116

True or false. Slightly more fluid is filtered out than is reabsorbed.

True

117

What collects the excess fluid returning it to blood?

lymphatic vessels

118

What is any condition in which blood vessels are inadequately filled and blood cannot circulate normally?

circulatory shock

119

Large-scale loss of blood or body fluids

hypovolemic shock

120

Inefficient heart cannot sustain adequate circulation

cardiogenic shock

121

Extreme vasodilation and decreased peripheral resistance

Vascular shock

122

This type of shock is due to anaphalaxis

vascular shock

123

This type of shock is due to dehydration ad excessive sweating?

hypovolemic shock

124

This type of shock is due to not enough blood being pumped out?

cardiogenic shock