Fluid, Electrolyte and Balance Flashcards Preview

A&P II > Fluid, Electrolyte and Balance > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fluid, Electrolyte and Balance Deck (155):
1

Between an adult male, female, elder, and baby which has the higher body water content?

the baby due to low body fat therefore low bone mass

2

Why do males have 10 percent more body water content that females?

Males have more skeletal muscle than women who have higher body fat

3

What are the 2 main fluid compartments?

Intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid

4

What are the 2 subparts of the extracellular fluid? Percentages?

Plasma- 20%
Interstitial fluid-80%

5

What is the fluid in the blood called?

plasma

6

Which of the compartments consist of 2/3 total fluid content?

intracellular fluid

7

What is the fluid between cells called?

Interstitial fluid

8

Which of the compartments consist of 1/3 total fluid content?

Extracellular fluid

9

What is the percentage of the ICF in the body?

40%

10

What is the percentage of ECF in the body?

20%

11

What is the percentage of the total body weight of ECF and ICF?

60%

12

Nonelectrolytes

do not dissociate in water; no charged particles are created

13

Electrolytes

dissociate into ions in water; ions conduct electrical current

14

What are some examples of electrolytes?

acids, bases, salts, and some proteins

15

What are some examples of nonelectrolytes?

glucose and most organic molecules

16

What is the major cation in the ECF?

Na+

17

What is the major anion in the ECF?

Cl-

18

What is the major cation in the ICF?

K+

19

What is the major anion in the ICF?

HSO4-(2-)

20

Where are the electrolyte concentrations similar except for higher protein content of plasma?

ECF

21

Where are there more proteins than in plasma?

ICF

22

Where do exchanges between plasma and IF occur?

Across capillary walls

23

Where do exchanges between IF and ICF occur?

Across plasma membranes

24

What must occur for the body to remain stable?

its inout through ingestion or metabolic production = its output through excretion or metabolic consumption

25

Which 2 factors are regulated to maintain fluid balance?

1. ECF osmolality
2. ECF volume

26

How is ECF osmolality regulated?

must be regulated to prevent swelling or shrinking of cells

27

What is ECF osmolality involved in maintaining?

water balance

28

How is ECF volume regulated?

must be regulated to help maintain BP

29

What is ECF volume involved in maintaining?

maintaining sodium balance

30

What leads to net water flow?

a change in solute concentration in any compartment

31

Controlling ECF osmolality prevents what?

changes in ICF volume

32

What occurs when water leaves the cell to enter the ECF?

hypertonic solution

33

What occurs when water moves into the cell from the ECF?

hypotonic solution

34

What happens to the cell in a hypertonic solution?

the cell shrinks

35

What happens to the cell in a hypotonic solution?

the cell lysis or burst

36

What is the total amount of water intake/output in a day?

2500 mL/day

37

What are the ways water is taken into the body? Percentages?

Beverages: 60%
Food: 30%
Metabolism: 10%

38

What are the ways water is released from the body?

Urine: 60%
Insensible loss via skin and lungs: 28%
Sweat 8%
Feces: 4%

39

What is the range of plasma osmolality maintained?

280-300 mOsm

40

What causes rise in osmolality?

stimulates thirst and stimulates ADH release

41

What causes a decrease in osmolality?

inhibits thirst and ADHA RELEASE

42

ADH stimulation does what to urine output?

decreases urine output

43

ADH inhibition does what to urine output?

increases urine output

44

What drives water intake?

thirst mechanism

45

Where in the brain is the thirst center located?

in the hypothalamus

46

Which 3 factors activate the thirst center in the hypothalamus?

1. Dry mouth
2. Decrease in BP and BV
3. Hypothalamic osmoreceptors

47

How are water reabsorption and excretion are adjusted through changes in what?

ADH secretion

48

What monitors ECF solute concentration and trigger or inhibit ADH release?

hypothalamic osmoreceptors

49

What leads to the events of water reabsorption and small volume of concentrated urine?

ECF osmolality stimulates ADH release

50

What leads to to water reabsorption and large volume of dilute volume?

ECF osmolality inhibits ADH release

51

What is the term for excessive water loss?

Dehydration

52

What are 3 major ways dehydration occurs?

1. Diabetes insipidus
2. Excessive water loss
3. insufficient water intake

53

What are the effects of the cell of dehydration?

the cell shrinks

54

What is the term for excessive water gain?

overhydration

55

What are 3 major ways overhydration occurs?

1. Rapid ingestion of excess water
2. Inappropriate ADH secretion
3. Renal failure

56

What are the effects of the cell due to hypotonic hydration?

the cell swells

57

What is the term for atypical accumulation of interstitial fluid?

edema

58

Changes in what affects plasma volume, BP and CF and IF volumes?

change in plasma NA+ levels

59

How does sodium control ECF volume and water distribution?

this is because water follows salt

60

What are the three determinations of concentration of Na+ in ECF?

1. determines ECF osmolality
2. remains stable because water always follows salt to maintain osmotic equilibrium
3. regulated by controlling water or loss or gain

61

What are the 2 determination of total body content of Na+?

1. regulated by controlling Na+ loss or gain
2. determines ECF volume and BP

62

How do the kidneys maintain total body Na+ content?

by regulating rate of sodium excretion

63

What brings the body sodium content and ECF volume back into line?

changes in blood volume or pressure trigger neural and hormonal

64

Which two processes allow the kidneys adjust amount of salt excreted?

1. amount of sodium filtered
2. amount of sodium reabsorbed

65

What controls amount of sodium filtered?

controlled by regulating GFR

66

What controls amount of sodium reabsorbed?

controlled by renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism

67

Blood volume is monitored and regulated to maintain what?

BP

68

What determine fluid volume?

sodium content

69

What determines blood pressure?

fluid volume

70

What monitors BP and so indirectly monitor sodium content?

cardiovascular baroreceptors

71

What plays the biggest role in regulation of sodium by kidneys?

aldosterone

72

What occurs when aldosterone is low?

no sodium reabsorption occurs beyond DCT

73

What occurs when aldosterone is high?

all remaining Na+ is reabsorbed in DCT and collecting duct

74

What are the 2 triggers for aldosterone released?

1. renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism
2. elevated K+ levels in ECF

75

What is the role of ANP?

controls Na+ reabsorption

76

What are the 2 effects of ANP?

1. promotes excretion of sodium and water
2. decreases BV and BP

77

What is the importance of potassium?

effects resting membrane potential on neurons and cardiac muscle cells

78

Define hyperkalemia

increased ECF potassium concentration

79

Define hypokalemia

decreased ECF potassium concentration

80

What causes depolarization and reduced excitability?

hyperkalemia

81

What causes hyperpolarization and nonresponsiveness?

hypokalemia

82

As K+ leaves the cell and H+ enters the cell what effect does this have on the ECF?

ECF potassium concentration rises with acidosis

83

As K+ enters the cell and H+ leaves the cell, what effect does this have on the ECF?

ECF potassium concentration falls with alkalosis

84

What are three major events calcium in the ECF is important?

1. blood clotting
2. secretory activities
3. muscle contraction

85

Define hypcalcemia

decreased ECF calcium concentration

86

Define hypercalcemia

increased ECF calcium concentration

87

What is the result of hypocalcemia?

inhibits neurons and muscle cells and may cause heart arrhythmias

88

What is the result of hypocalcemia?

increases neuromuscular excitability and can lead to muscle tetany

89

ECF calcium levels closely are regulated by what?

PTH hormone

90

PTH promotes increase in calcium levels by targeting which 3 organs?

1. Bones
2. kidneys
3. small intestine

91

Most filtered calcium ions and phosphate ions are reabsorbed where?

PCT

92

What does PTH inhibit what?

ion reabsorption; decreases transport maximum

93

What 2 events occur when ECF calcium is low?

1. more calcium ions are reabsorbed
2. more phosphate is excreted

94

Changes in what alter tertiary structure of proteins?

hydrogen concentration of ECF

95

Arterial pH>7.45

alkalosis

96

Arterial pH

acidosis

97

Neurons become less excitable -> CNS depression

alkalosis

98

Neurons become hyperexcitable -> respiratory arrest

acidosis

99

What is the normal pH of arterial blood?

7.4

100

Fat metabolism is broken down into

fatty acids and ketone bodies

101

Anaerobic respiration of glucose is broken down into

lactic acid

102

Catabolism of proteins is broken down into

phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid

103

H+ gain through metabolism must be attached with H+ loss by?

1. removal of CO2 by respiration
2. excretion of H+ in urine

104

H+ concentration is regulated sequentially by which 3 mechanisms?

Chemical buffer systems -> brain stem respiratory centers -> renal mechanisms

105

Dissociate only partially; only small effect on pH

weak acids

106

Dissociate completely in water; can dramatically affect pH

strong acids

107

Dissociate completely in water; quickly tie up hydrogen ions

strong bases

108

Weak bases

dissociate only partially

109

System of one or more compounds that resists pH changes by reversibly binding hydrogen ions

chemical buffer

110

What are the 3 major chemical buffer systems?

1. bicarbonate
2. phosphate
3. protein

111

Mixture of H2CO3 and NaHCO3

bicarbonate buffer system

112

only important ECF buffer

bicarbonate buffer system

113

If a strong acid is added to a bicarbnonate buffer system, what happens to the pH?

pH decreases slightly

114

If a strong base is added to a bicarbonate buffer system what occurs to the pH?

the pH rises only slightly

115

What type of buffer system is important in buffering urine and ICF?

phosphate buffer system

116

what are the components of sodium salts in the phosphate buffer system?

dihydrogen phosphate and monohydrogen phosphate

117

If a strong acid is added to a phosphate buffer system what happens to the pH?

pH decreases

118

If a strong base is added to a phosphate buffer system what happens to the pH?

pH increases

119

What type of buffer system involves plasma and in cells?

Protein buffer system

120

True or false. A protein molecule can function reversibly as a weak acid or weak base

true

121

True or False. When pH falls, amino groups release H+

False, amino groups bind H+

122

True or false. When pH rises, organic acid or carboxyl groups release H+

true

123

Respiratory and renal system are what type of buffering systems?

physiological buffering systems

124

What are the 3 functions of the physiological buffering system?

1. regulate amount of acid or base in body
2. act more slowly than chemical buffer systems but have more buffering power

125

What do lungs eliminate by eliminating CO2?

volatile acid carbonic acid

126

What do kidneys eliminate by cellular metabolism?

nonvolatile acids produced by cellular metabolism

127

What are the 3 effects if pressure in CO2 or plasma rises?

1. respiratory rate and depth increase
2. more CO2 removed from blood
3. reaction shifts to left and reduces H+ concentration

128

What are the 3 effects if plasma falls?

1. more CO2 accumulates in blood
2. respiratory rate and depth decrease
3. reaction shifts to right and increases hydrogen ions concentration

129

What are the 2 ways kidneys regulate acid-base balance by adjusting amount of HCO3-?

1. conserving or generating new HCO3-
2. Excreting HCO3-

130

When plasma decreases kidneys excrete large quantities what happens to the pH?

plasma H+ increases toward normal

131

When plasma increases kidneys reabsorb HCO3- what happens to the plasma H+?

Plasma H+ decreases toward normal

132

What is the term caused by too much CO2 in the blood?

respiratory acidosis

133

what is the term caused by too little CO2 in the blood?

respiratory alkalosis

134

Respiratory acidosis and alkalosis are indicated by what?

Blood partial pressure of CO2 levels above or below normal range

135

What is the term for all abnormalities other than those caused by excess retention or loss of CO2?

Metabolic acidosis or alkalosis

136

Metabolic acidosis and alkalosis are indicated by what?

indicated by HCO3- levels above or below normal range

137

What causes hypoventilation, shallow breathing and impaired gas exchange?

Respiratory acidosis

138

What happens to the CO2 and blood pH in respiratory acidosis?

1. CO2 accumulates in blood, lower than normal range
2. Blood pH drops

139

What causes hyperventilation?

Respiratory alkalosis

140

What happens to the CO2 and blood pH in respiratory alkalosis?

1. CO2 eliminated faster than produced, above normal range
2. Blood pH rises

141

What is cause by ingesting too much alcohol, excessive loss of HCO3-, accumulation of lactic aid, and ketosis?

metabolic acidosis

142

What happens to the HCO3- and blood pJ in metabolic acidosis?

low blood and HCO3- levels

143

What does vomiting acidic stomach contents and intake of excess antacids lead to?

metabolic alkalosis

144

What happens to the blood pH and HCO3- in metabolic alkalosis?

rising blood pH and HCO3- levelsn

145

True or false. If acid-base imbalance due to malfunction of one physiological buffer system, other system tries to compensate

true

146

Respiratory system attempts to correct metabolic acid-base imbalances b what?

by changing respiratory rate and depth

147

Kidneys attempt to correct respiratory acid-base imbalances by what?

retaining or eliminating HCO3-

148

How does the respiratory system try to compensate for metabolic acidosis?

increasing rate and depth of breathing

149

How does the respiratory system compensate for metabolic alkalosis?

with slow, shallow breathing

150

How do the kidneys compensate for respiratory acidosis?

by retaining more HCO3-

151

How do the kidneys compensate for respiratory alkalosis?

kidneys compensate by excreting more HCO3-

152

Low blood, High Pco2 and high HCO3- levels

respiratory acidosis

153

Low blood, low HCO3-, and Pco2 below normal

metabolic acidosis

154

High blood pH, high HCO3-, and Pco2 above normal

metabolic alkalosis

155

High blood pH, low Pco2, and low HCO3- levels

respiratory alkalosis