Blood Lecture 2 / Immunoglobulins and humoral immunity / ch7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Blood Lecture 2 / Immunoglobulins and humoral immunity / ch7 Deck (24):
1

Antigen (Ag) definition ?

Any foreign matter that enters the body and and meets either or both of the following criteria: 1.)  Can bind antibody 2.) Can bind to a T or B cell receptor

2

Antigenic cells that are destined to be destroyed by the immune system are called what ?

Target cells

3

Technically an _____ is a molecule or a portion there of, of Protein, carbohydrate or lipid found on surface of microorganism, infected cell, tumor cell and allogenic cell

antigen

4

Any surface that can generate an immune response?

Immunogen

5

Protein molecules produced by B cells / Plasma cells and are always present in small amounts in blood and body tissue.

Antibody (Ab)

6

Antibody (Ab) AKA

immunoglobulin

7

Antibody production in response to antigen is known as what?

Humoral Immunity

8

Antibody (Ab) has 2 major functions, what are they?

1.) To Opsonize (coat) antigen 2.) To activate the complement cascade.

9

Primary exposure called sensitization or immunization takes 14 days to reach full power. The time from antigen recognition to antibody production is called what ?

lag period

10

Antibody destroys antigen in many different ways, the following mechanisms are involved:

- Oposonize ( coat surface) - Mark the Antigen for recognition and destruction by 1.) Complement cascade (MAC Complex) 2.) Granulocytes and Natural Killer cells (phagocytosis) 3.) Neutralization; A coat of Antibody may make the Antigen harmless

11

Synthesis of Antibodies process?

B cell recognize Antigen > B cell makes differentiate into plasma cells > Each plasma cell makes lots of Antibodies and releases them into circulation

12

During the primary exposure to a specific Antigen the Antibody production takes about 14 days and its concentration is low. What happens after this?

•  Memory cells produced for future exposure

13

Re-exposure to same antigen produces antibody causes Memory cells from primary exposure respond very quickly. Antibodies are produced:

– In larger quantities – In response to lower concentrations of Antigen – With a higher affinity to Antigen

14

Antibody Types

•  IgG and IgM are the primary classes produced

15

IgG Class Antibody

•  Most potent

•  Makes up 80% of antibody in circulation

•  Produced in greater quantities than any other Antibody.

•  Diffuses into tissue and across the PLACENTA.

– Maternal RhAb can attack fetal Rh+ fetal RBC causing hemolytic disease of the newborn

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16

Maternal Rh-Ab (anti-D) can attack

fetal Rh+ fetal RBC causing hemolytic disease of the newborn

17

IgM Class Antibody

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•  First Antibody to be produced during primary exposure

•   10-15% strong

•  LARGE; 5 linked Ab molecules

– Can not diffuse out of circulation

•  Effective at gathering Ag into clumps (agglutination)

 

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18

Whats used to type blood (A, B) bound by Anti-A and Anti-B which are IgM Antibodies?

Antigen on RBC

19

IgD Class

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•  Found in small amounts •  Has limited immunologic effect against Ag •  May assist the b cell in reacting to helper T cells

20

IgA Class

 

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•  Primary Ab in body fluids and secreted by mucus membranes – Tears, breast milk, saliva, others

•  Binds to Anigen &  immobilizes it for removal in mucus

– Marks it for destruction by granulocytes

21

IgE Class

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•  Very low concentration in circulation •  Primarily responsible for defense against parasites •  Involved in allergic reactions – Asthma, hay fever, others – Anaphylaxis •  Stimulates Basophils into releasing histamine. – Edema, sinus inflammation, itching, bronchiole constriction

22

•  The specific region of the Ag molecule recognized by Ab or lymphocyte receptor •  One half of a pair of interlocking puzzle pieces

Epitope

23

•  The immune system can produce Ab against any Ag in the universe those that exist and those that do not yet exist. •  T cells recognize self •  How’s that work?

Clonal Selection

24

Antibody from the same class have same

amino acid arrangement in certain areas