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Flashcards in Bones & Skeletal Tissues Deck (67):
1

Cartilage

- Specialized, resilient, avascular connective tissue

- Surrounded by perichondrium (dense irregular CT)

- composed of 60-80% water, chondrocytes and much ECM

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2

Types of Cartilage

- Hyaline - most abundant, costal, ends of long bones, nose, trachea, larynx

- Elastic - tolerates repeated bending, external ear and epiglottis 

-  Fibrocartilage - resists strong compression/tension, in intervertebral discs, knee joint discs and pubic symphisis

3

Cartilage Growth

- 2 Types:

  • Interstitial - from within, chondrocytes mitosize, separate into own lacunae, stops after cartilage matures
  • Appositional - stem cells along perichondrium divide into chondroblasts which produce new ECM and eventually become chondrocytes in new lacunae

4

Bones

- Organs made up of bone tissue, nervous tissue, blood tissue with cartilage and epithelium in blood vessels

 

5

Perichondrium

Dense irregular connective tissue surrounding cartilage

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6

Bone Functions

  • Support - framework for body
  • Movement - levers for muscles
  • Protection - encasing organs (ex: ribcage)
  • Mineral Storage
  • Erythropoeisis (red marrow)
  • Fat storage (yellow marrow)

7

4 Classes of Bones

- Long (femur, humerus, phalanges, etc.)

- Short (sesamoid, carpals, tarsals, etc.)

- Flat (sternum, cranial bones, ribs, etc.)

- Irregular (vertebrae, ethmoid, sphenoid, etc.)

8

# of Bones in Adult Skeleton

206

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Sesamoid Bones

Special type of short bone that forms within a tendon (ex: patella)

10

Compact Bone

Dense external layer of bones that looks smooth and solid

11

Spongy Bone

AKA trabecular bone

- lies deep to compact bone and appears like a honeycomb of thin, flat pieces called trabeculae, between which is red and yellow marrow

- contains no osteons

12

Diaphysis

- tubular body of long bones

- AKA shaft

13

Epiphysis

- ends of long bones

14

Metaphysis

Region between epiphysis and diaphysis where growth occurs

15

Epiphyseal Plate

Layers of hyaline cartilage that lengthen the diaphysis as the bone grows

- AKA growth plate

16

Epiphyseal Line

- a thin layer of compact bone in adult long bones where the epiphyseal plate used to be

17

Articular Cartilage

- thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering the joint surfaces of the epiphysis 

18

Medullary Cavity

the center of long bone diaphyses filled with yellow marrow

AKA marrow cavity

19

Periosteum

connective tissue membrane covering entire outer surface of bones (except articular cartilage)

consist of superficial dense irregular CT layer and osteogenic deep layer

20

Endosteum

thinner osteogenic CT membrane covering internal bone surfaces

21

Red Marrow

site of erythropoiesis within bone

22

Yellow Marrow

Site of fat storage within bone

23

 Nutrient Vein & Artery

Main blood vessels serving diaphysis

24

Epiphyseal Vein & Artery

Main blood vessels serving the epiphysis

25

Differences in Short, Irregular and Flat Bone Structure

- no diaphysis or epiphysis

- no marrow cavity (marrow only among the trebaculae)

26

Diploë

internal spongy bone of flat bones

27

Difference Between Bone and Cartilage Structure

- Same organic components (cells, fibers, ground substance) but bone has hardened inorganic components in its matrix (primparily calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite crystals

28

Osteoprogenitor Cells

- Flat mesenchymal cells that divide & differentiate into osteoblasts

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Osteoblasts

- peripherally located immature bone cells

- actively produce and secrete organic componoents of bone matrix (osteoid) at their surface

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30

Osteocytes

- mature bone cells that exist within lacunae

- formed with osteoblasts are surrounded by new matrix

- less synthetic ability than osteoblasts, mostly act to maintain existing matrix

31

Osteoclast

- large, branched mutinucleate motile cells

- perform bone remodeling, renewal and resorption by secreting HCl and lysosomal enzymes

- exist on bone surface at the peri- and endosteums

32

Osteoid

Newly formed bone matrix synthesized by osteoblasts

33

Osteons

- AKA Haversian Systems

- long, cylindrical structures parallel to bone's axis made of concentric tubes 

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34

Lamella

one of the concentric tubes making up an osteon or one of the circumferential tubes around the outer or inner edge of compact bone

35

Central Canal

AKA Haversian Canal

An osteogenic endostium-lined  canal in the middle of each osteon that contains blood vessels and nerve fibers

36

Perforating Canals

AKA Volkmann's Canals

Canals that run perpendicular to central canals connecting nerve and blood supplies of the periosteum, central canals and marrow cavity

37

Canaliculi

thin tubes within osteons in which osteocytes have long narrow cytoplasmic extensions that connect with neighboring cells via gap junctions

38

external/interneal circumferential lamellae

- lamellae around the circumference of the diaphysis and marrow cavity

39

interstitial lamellae

remains of old osteons that have been cut through by bone remodleing and appear as incomplete osteons between the new ones

40

Ossification

AKA osteogenesis

formation and development of bone

41

Intramembranous Ossification

- develops from mesenchyme to produce flat bones of skull, facial bones, mandible and some of clavicle

42

Endochondral Ossification

Bone develops from within hyaline cartilage

43

Appositional Bone Growth

- growth by addition to a bone's surface, causing growth in diameter

44

Interstitial Bone Growth

Growth in bone length

45

Four Categories of Bone Markings

  1. Articulating Surfaces
  2. Depressions
  3. Projections
  4. Openings and spaces

46

Condyle

Large, smooth, rounded articulating oval structure

(ex: occipital condyles, medial condyle of femur)

47

Facet

Small, flat, shallow articulating surface

48

Head

Prominent, rounded epiphysis

(ex: proximal femur, proximal radius, distal ulna)

49

Trochlea

Smooth, grooved, pulley-like articular process

(ex: trochlea of (distal) humerus)

50

Alveolus

Deep pit or socket in the maxilla or mandible (where teeth articulate with jaws)

51

Fossa

Flattened or shallow depression

(ex: iliac fossas of ossa coxae)

52

Sulcus

Narrow groove

(ex: intertubercular sulcus of humerus)

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Crest

Narrow, prominent ridglike projection

(ex: iliac crest of os coxae)

54

Epicondyle

Projection adjacent to a condyle

(ex: medial and lateral epicondyles of distal femur)

55

Line

Low ridge

56

Process

Any marked bony prominence

(ex: zygomatic process of temporal bone) 

57

Ramus

Angular extension of a bone relative to the rest of its structure

(ex: ramus of mandible)

58

Spine

- Pointed, slender process

(ex: spinous processes of vertebrae, iliac spines of ossa coxae)

59

Trochanter

Massive, rough projection found only on femur

(ex: greater and lesser trochanter of femur)

60

Tubercle

Small, round projection

(ex: greater and lesser tubercles of (proximal) humerus)

61

Tuberosity

Large, rough projection

(ex: deltoid tuberosity of humerus, ischial tuberosity of oss coxae)

62

Canal

AKA Meatus, a passageway through a bone

(ex: internal and external acoustic meatuses of temporal bones)

63

Fissure

Narrow slit-like opening through a bone

(ex: inferior orbital fissure of skull between sphenoid and maxilla bones)

64

Foramen

Rounded passageway through a bone

(ex: foramen magnum of occipital bone, obturator foramen of oss coxae)

65

Sinus

Cavity or hollow space in a bone

(ex: ethmoid sinuses)

66

Bone Aging

- As bone ages it loses ability to produce its organic matrix (collagen) and loses calcium and other salts

- this can result in osteoporosis, a decrease in bone density

67

Perforating Fibers

AKA Sharpey's fibers

Thick collagen bundles running from periosteum into bone matrix