Cardiovascular Part II: Heart Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Part II: Heart Deck (66):
1

What are the two circuits of the cardiovascular system? And what does each do?

Pulmonary Circuit - transports blood between lungs and heart

Systemic Circuit - transports blood between the body tissues and the heart

2

What are the receiving chambers of the heart? And where does each receive blood from?

Atria

- right receives oxygen-poor blood from body

- left receives oxygen-rich blood from lungs

3

What are the pumping chambers of the heart? And where does each send blood to?

Ventricles

- right sends oxygen-poor blood to lungs via pulmonary trunk

- left sends oxygen-rich blood to body via aorta

4

What are the functions of the heart?

- ensure unidirectional blood flow

- pump blood to lungs and body

- develops blood pressure for nutrient and waste exchange

5

Describe the position and orientation of the heart.

- it is the largest organ in the mediastinum

- medial to the lungs

- obliquely positioned

- posterior to sternum

- rests on superior surface of diaphragm

- apex (anteroinferior left) in 5th intercostal space

- base is a broad posterior surface

6

#6

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Parietal Pericardium

- the layer of serous pericardium that lines the walls of the pericardial cavity

 

7

#7

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visceral pericardium

- the layer of serous pericardium that lines the outside of the heart

- AKA epicardium (when asked for "layer," not "covering")

 

8

the layer of tissue indicated by the arrow in the magnified portion of the image

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fibrous pericardium

- strong outer layer of dense connective tissue surrounding the serous pericardium

9

the heart covering formed from both layers #6 and #7

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serous pericardium

- "fist in a balloon" type covering

- interior of "balloon" = pericardial cavity with pericardial fluid

10

What are the three layers of the heart wall from outermost to innermost?

- Epicardium - visceral pericardium

- Myocardium - middle layer of cardiac muscle

- Endocardium - inner endothelium on layer of CT

11

How is myocardial muscle oriented and what does this achieve?

- it is a spirally-arranged network of cardiac muscles bound by connective tissue

- it produces a wringing, squeezing motion 

12

What are the four chambers of the heart? Which receive and which discharge blood?

Receiving Chambers:

- Right atrium

- Left atrium

 

Discharging Chambers:

- right ventricle

- left ventricle

13

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Right Atrium

- receives oxygen-poor blood from systemic circuit (inf. and sup. vena cava)

- contains fossa ovalis

 

14

Chamber numbered 3

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Left atrium

- makes up posterior surface of heart

- receives blood from lungs via pulmonary veins

15

chamber marked with pen

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right ventricle

- receives oxygen-poor blood from right atrium via right AV valve and pumps it to pulmonary trunk via pulmonary SL valve

16

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Left Ventricle

- externally forms apex of heart

- receives oxygen-rich blood from the left atrium via the left AV valve and pumps it via the aortic SL valve to the aorta

- has a thicker wall than the right ventricle because it must pump blood further, through the entire systemic circuit

17

# 7

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epicardium

- known as visceral pericardium when refering to heart coverings

- most superficial layer of the heart 

- lubricates heart 

18

#6

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myocardium

- middle layer of cardiac muscle in heart wall

- thickest layer of heart

- arranged spirally to contract in a wringing motion

19

#5

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endocardium

- deepest layer of heart

- lines inner surface

- made up of endothelial & connective tissues

20

Incoming Vessels of the Heart

Right Atrium (oxygen-poor)

- superior vena cava

- inferior vena cava

- coronary sinus

Left Atrium (oxygen-rich)

- pulmonary veins (4 total, 2 L & 2 R)

21

Outgoing Vessels of the Heart

Right Ventricle ----> Pulmonary Trunk

Left Ventricle ------> Aorta

22

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fossa ovalis

- oval depression in interatrial septum

- vestige of the fetal foramen ovale, a bypass of the pulmonary circuit

23

green area

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interventricular septum

- wall between the two ventricles

24

indicated by green line

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Apex

- inferior conical end of heart formed by exterior of inferior left ventricle

25

the posterior face of the heart

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Base

- broad posterosuperior surface of heart

- primarily formed by left atrium

26

area circled in green

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right auricle

- wrinkled, flaplike extension of right atrium

27

#6

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left auricle

- wrinkled extension of left atria

28

What are the two different kinds of valves in the heart and what are their functions?

atrioventricular valves

- between atria and ventricles

- bicuspid on left, tricuspid on right

semilunar valves

- between ventricles and arteries (one pulmonary, one aortic)

- 3 pocket-like ("half-moon") cusps

 

- both serve to allow only unidirectional flow of blood

29

#5

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Mitral Valve (AKA bicuspid valve)

- left atrioventricular valve

30

#2

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Tricuspid Valve

- right atrioventricular valve

31

#1

pulmonary semilunar valve

- between right ventricle and pulmonary trunk

32

#9

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aortic semilunar valve

- between left ventricle and aorta

33

What are the cusps of cardiac valves made of?

- they are flaps of endocardium over a core of dense CT

34

white fibers shown here:

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Chordae Tendineae

- thin strands of collagen fibers connecting cusps of AV valves to papillary muscles

- prevents the valves from everting into the atria

35

#7

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papillary muscles

- cone-shaped muscular projections from the walls of the ventricles which anchor chordae tedineae

36

#10

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Aorta

- largest artery in the body

- accepts blood from left ventricle

37

#9

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Pulmonary Trunk

- anterior to aorta

- divides into left and right pulmonary arteries

- accepts blood from right ventricle

38

#2 and #6

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Pulmonary Veins

- enter left atrium from lungs

- two sets of two, left and right

39

#4

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superior vena cava

- large posterosuperior vein

- returns blood from head, neck and upper extremities

- enters right atrium of heart

 

40

#1

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inferior vena cava

- returns blood from abdomen and lower extremities

- enters right atrium

41

Cardiac Muscle

- forms middle layer of heart called myocardium

- striated

- contracts via sliding filament mechanism, similar to skeletal muscle

- involuntary

- contracts to pump blood through heart and into vessels

42

Cardiac Muscle Cell Characteristics

- short (unlike skeletal muscle)

- branching

- 1-2 central nuclei

- not fused colonies

43

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intercalated disks

- complex junctions between cardiac muscle cells

- interlocking of adjacent sarcolemmas (muscle cell membranes)

- have cell junctions: adhering and gap junctions

44

What is a cardiac muscle "fiber"?

Multiple short cardiac muscle cells lined up and connected by intercalated discs

(unlike skeletal muscle fibers which are a single, long muscle cell)

45

What separates different cardiac muscle fibers?

endomysium

- connective tissue with blood vessels and nerves

- binds adjacent cardiac fibers, but seperates their cells

46

How do most cardiac muscle cells receive contraction signals?

- most are NOT innervated

- they receive signals through gap junctions of intercalated disks

47

What are the specialized cells that conduct electrical impulses through the heart?

Conduction System Cells

- specialized cardiac muscle cells

- cause chambers to contract in the proper sequence

48

 Autorhythmicity

- a property of cardiac muscle cells

- rhythmic activity without being driven by rhythmic external stimulation

49

area from which signals are spreading here:

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- sinoatrial node - 

- specialized cardiomyocytes

- in the superior wall of right atrium

- sets inherent rate of contraction 

- impulses spread to the atria

50

#2

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atrioventricular node

- in inferior wall of interatrial septum

- electrically connects atrial and ventricular chambers

 

51

#7

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Atrioventricular Bundle (AKA Bundle of His)

- collection of heart muscle cells specialized to conduct impulses from the AV node to the bundle branches and Perkinje fibers which stimulate ventricular contraction 

52

#6

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- left and right bundle branches

- branches of the AV bundle which conduct impulses to the left and right ventricles

53

rounder, emptier cells in center of image

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Purkinje fibers

- specialized conductive fibers in ventricular walls

- larger size makes for easier ion flow & signal conduction

- bigger, emptier-looking cells among normal cardiac muscle cells

 

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54

Cardiac Innervation (which nerves?)

- rate altered by external controls

Nerves to Heart:

  • Vagus nerve (parasympathetic branch)
  • Sympathetic fibers (from cervical and upper thoracic chain ganglia)
  • Visceral sensory fibers

 

55

red vessel indicated by arrow

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left coronary artery

- splits into:

  • anterior interventricular artery
  • circumflex artery
  • posterior interventricular artery

56

general term for all vessels shown here in red

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coronary arteries

- vessels which supply blood to the myocardium

- arise from the aorta

57

part B

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coronary sinus

- largest coronary vein

- where blood re-enters right atrium from coronary circulation

58

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anterior interventricular artery

59

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circumflex artery

60

#9

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posterior interventricular artery

 

61

#8

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right coronary artery

- leads to right marginal artery at bottom of right ventricle

62

#8

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marginal artery

- branches off of right coronary artery

63

blue vessel here:

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great cardiac vein

- vein that runs along anterior surface of heart between ventricles (along with anterior interventricular artery)

64

middle cardiac vein

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middle cardiac vein

- runs along posterior heart between ventricles 

- paired with posterior interventricular artery

65

part G

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internodal pathway

- carries signals from the sinoatrial to atrioventricular nodes of the cardiac conduction system

66