Cardiovascular Part I: Blood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Part I: Blood Deck (34):
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2 parts of the Circulatory System

composed of the cardiovascular system (2-way circulation of blood) and the lymphatic system (one-way transport of lymph)

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3 Parts of the Cardiovascular System

- blood

- heart

- blood vessels

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4 Components of the Lymphatic Systems

- lymphatic vessels

- lymphocytes

- lymphoid tissue

- lymphoid organs

 

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How is blood a connective tissue?

It consists of:

  • cells (erythrocytes and leukocytes)
  • fibers (fibrin strands formed by clotting factors)
  • ground substance (plasma)

 

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Functions of blood

 - carries respiratory gases, nutrients and hormones

- regulates body temperature

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Classification of Blood Components

- living cells - "formed elements"

- non-living matrix - "plasma"

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Hematocrit

- packed cell volume

- a volume percentage of erythrocytes

- 47 +/- 5% in males

- 42 +/- 5% in females

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Blood Plasma

- straw-colored, sticky fluid portion of blood

- 90% water, makes up 55% of blood volume

- contains ions, gases, nutrients, wastes and proteins

- three main proteins:

  • albumin
  • globulins
  • fibrinogen

 

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albumin

- smallest, most abundant plasma protein

- contributes to viscosity and osmolarity 

- transports solutes and buffers pH (7.34 - 7.45)

 

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Fibrinogen

- soluble fibrin precursor

- fibrin forms sticky network for clotting

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Globulins

- contributes to immune function

- known as antibodies

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serum

- plasma minus its clotting factors (formed elements)

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What is a clot?

- platelets trapped in a network of fibrin

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3 types of formed elements in blood

Formed elements = cells

  • erythrocytes (red, 99%)
  • leukocytes (white)
  • thrombocytes (platelets)

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numerous large, lightly stained cells here:

Q image thumb

erythrocytes

- 4-6 million/mm3

- originate in red marrow

- main function is O2 and CO2 transport

anatomy:

  • anucleate
  • no organelles
  • biconcave disks
  • packed with hemoglobin

 

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How long do erythrocytes live and where do they go to die?

about 100-120 days; the liver and spleen

- short-lived due to their lack of organelles, so can't repair themselves, etc.

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Why are erythrocytes biconcave?

to increase their surface area for O2 absorption and distribution

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What molecule is this? What are its two main components? What is its function?

Q image thumb

Hemoglobin;

Four globins each with a heme pigment;

to transport O2 by its tendency to bind to the Fe2+ on each heme

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the general term for the kind cell shown here darkly stained

Q image thumb

White Blood Cell (AKA Leukocyte)

- 4,800-11,000/mm3

- carry out immunological functions

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What is the process of WBCs leaving blood capillaries to attack pathogens called?

Diapedesis

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Types of Leukocytes (2 main categories; 5 total cell types)

  • Granulocytes - (cytoplasmic granules &                                   lobed nuclei)
  1. Neutrophils
  2. Eosinophils
  3. Basophils

 

  • Agranulocytes - (no granules & unlobed                                   nuclei)
  1. Lymphocytes
  2. Monocytes

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What kind of WBCs are these?

Q image thumb

Neutrophils (granulocyte)

-  most common WBC (60%)

- 2-6 lobes per nuclei attached by chromatin strands

- active bacterial phagocytes 

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What kind of WBC is this?

Q image thumb

eosinophil (granulocyte)

- 1-4% of WBCs

- bilobed nucleus

- increased in allergic response

- phagocytize allergens bound to antibodies

- kill parasitic worms

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What kind of WBC is this?

Q image thumb

basophil (granulocyte)

- very rare

-  usually two lobes per nucleus

- heavily grainy cytoplasmic staining

- contain and release histamine to initiate inflammation

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What kind of WBC is this? What are the two types of it and their functions?

Q image thumb

lymphocyte ( agranulocyte)

- 20-45% of WBCs

- large, round nucleus almost fills cell (cytoplasm just a rim around the nucleus)

two types:

- B-lymphocytes (bone marrow) - produce antibodies, recognize and mark cells for destruction by macrophages

- T-lymphocytes (thymus) - target alien cells; reject transplants; kill virus-infected cells and some cancers; are cytotoxic

 

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What kind of WBC is this?

Q image thumb

monocyte (agranulocyte)

- 4-8% of WBCs

- horseshoe/kidney-shaped nucleus

- active phagocytes

- become macrophages when in tissues

- largest WBC

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DLC (Differential Leukocyte Count)

Neutrophil - 60%

Eosinophil - 1-4%

Basophil -

Lymphocytes - 20-45%

Monocytes - 4-8%

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Q image thumb

thrombocytes (aka platelets)

- fragments of megakaryocytes

- membrane-bound cytoplasm fragments without nuclei

- essential to clotting; adhere to blood vessel tears

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What is the name for blood cell formation?

hematopoiesis

- 100 billion cells each day

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Bone Marrow and Hematopoiesis

(which color of marrow?)

- red marrow

- contains immature erythrocytes

- yellow marrow is dormant

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What parent cell do all blood cells come from?

Hemocytoblasts or Blood Stem Cells

AKA pluripotential hematopoietic stem cell

- differentiate into:

  • lymphoid stem cells - lymphocytes
  • myeloid stem cells - all other blood cells (RBC, WBC, platelets)

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What cells come from lymphoid stem cells?

Lymphocytes only

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What cells come from myeloid stem cells?