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Flashcards in Joints Deck (62):
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Arthrology

the study of joints

 

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kinesiology

study of musculoskeletal movement

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Functional Classification of Joints

- Synarthroses - immovable ("syn-" means fusion or think "sin" = without movement)

- Amphiarthroses - slightly movable

- Diarthroses - freely movable (appendicular)

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Structural Classification of Joints

- based on binding material and presence of joint cavity

- Fibrous Joints - Sutures, Syndesmoses, Gomphoses

- Cartilagenous Joints - synchondroses, symphyses

- Synovial Joints - have synovial cavity/fluid

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Fibrous Joints

- these are synarthroses, meaning immovable, though some slightly movable

- connected by fibrous CT, no joint cavity

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Fibrous joints between skull bones that are tightly bound by small amount of tissue. Allow bone growth during childhood.

Sutures

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Fibrous joints connected by ligaments only. Most movable fibrous joints, depending on length of ligament fibers.

Syndesmoses

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Joint found between teeth and their sockets, connected by collagen fibers.

Gomphoses

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Cartilagenous Joints

- bones united by cartilage

- no joint cavity

- not highly movable

two types: synchondroses, symphyses

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Immovable cartilagenous joint in which hyaline cartilage unites bones. Found in epiphyseal plates and ribs' attachment's to sternum.

Synchondroses

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Fibrocartilagenous union of bone that resists tension and compression and is slightly movable.

Symphyses

(pubic symphyses and intervertebral discs)

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Synovial Joints

- most movable of all joints

- all considered diarthroses

- bones separated by fluid-filled joint cavity

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Parts of Synovial Joints

- articular cartilage

- joint cavity

- articular capsule

- synovial fluid

- reinforcing ligaments

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Articular Cartilage

- hyaline cartilage on ends of bones in synovial joints

- absorbs compression

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Joint Cavity

- AKA synovial cavity

- holds small amount of synovial fluid

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Articular Capsule

- two-layered capsule around synovial joint

- made up of Fibrous Capsule of dense irregular CT and Synovial Membrane of loose CT which lines capsule and covers internal surfaces, producing synovial fluid

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synovial fluid

viscous fluid that lubricates synovial joints

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Reinforcing Ligaments

- extracapsular ligaments - located outside the capsule

- intracapsular ligaments - located inside capsule

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Articular Discs

- also known as Meniscus

- disc of fibrocartilage in some joints (knee, jaw)

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ligaments

- join bone to bone

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tendons

- join muscle to bone

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bursa

- a fibrous sac lined with synovial membrane between some bones, tendons and muscles to decrease friction

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Knee Joint Overview

  • articular capsule
  • articular cartilages
  • synovial membrane
  • suprapatellar, infrapatellar and prepatellar bursae
  • anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments
  • tibial and fibular cruciate ligaments
  • patellar ligament
  • tendon of quadriceps femoris
  • medial and lateral menisci

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articular capsule of knee

- not visible on models

- made up of outer fibrous capsule and inner synovial membrane

- encloses medial, lateral and posterior knee joint

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white connective tissue covering bone where condyles of femur and tibia

articular cartilages of the knee

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synovial membrane of knee

- not seen on models

- secretes synovial fluid from surface of articular capsule

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Fluid-filled sac above the knee cap, deep to the quadriceps femoris

Suprapatellar Bursa

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fluid-filled sac superficial to the patella

prepatellar bursa

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fluid-filled sac distal to kneecap

infrapatellar bursa

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fibrocartilage pad on medial condyle of tibia

medial meniscus of knee joint

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fibrocartilage pad on lateral condyle of tibia

lateral meniscus of knee joint

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ligament running from posterior femur to anterior tibia

anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)

- prevents hyperextension of knee

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ligament running from anterior femur to posterior tibia

posterior cruciate ligament

- prevents hyperflexion

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Q image thumb

lateral (fibular) collateral ligament 

- prevents hyperadduction

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name of CT replaced here by artificial means

Q image thumb

- medial (tibial) collateral ligament

prevents hyperabduction

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Q image thumb

patellar ligament

- attaches patella to tibia

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# 2

Q image thumb

tendon of quadriceps femoris

- patella is embedded within

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Joints that allow only gliding movement, as in wrists and ankles

Plane Joint

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Joints that allow motion in only one plane, such as those of the fingers, elbows and knees.

hinge joints

#4 in image

A image thumb
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Joint in which the axis of a convex articular surface is parallel with the longitudinal axis of the bone allowing rotation. Seen in the atlanto-axial joint between the first two cervical vertebrae.

Pivot Joint

#5 in image

A image thumb
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an ovoid articular surface, or condyle that is received into an elliptical cavity allowing for biplanar movement (flexion, extension, ab/adduction)

seen in metacarpophalangeal joint

Condyloid Joint

#2 in image

A image thumb
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joint whose opposing surfaces are reciprocally concave-convex, allowing biplanar movement ( flexion, extension, adduction, abduction) but no axial rotation

ex: sternoclavicular joint

saddle joint

#3 in image

A image thumb
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a joint in which the spheroid surface of one rounded bone fits into the cup-like depression of another bone

ex: femur in acetabulum, humerus in glenoid fossa

ball and socket join

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gliding

bony surfaces glide over each other

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flexion

decreases the angle of joint

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extension

increases the angle of joint

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abduction

draws a limb out to the side, away from the median sagittal plane

think "abduct" as in to take away

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adduction

a movement which brings a part of the anatomy closer to the middle sagittal plane of the body

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circumduction

movement of limb that describes a cone

proximal end is still, distal end moves in circle

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rotation

turning bone around its long axis

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supination

rotate forearm laterally so palm faces anteriorly

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pronation

rotate forearm medially so palm faces posteriorly

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inversion

moving foot's sole toward midline

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eversion

moving foot's sole laterally

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protraction

jutting out of jaw

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retraction

moving jaw backward

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elevation

lifting limb or body part superiorly

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depression

moving body part inferiorly

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opposition

bringing thumb and index finger tips together

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dorsiflexion/plantar flexion

up and down movements of foot, respectively

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