What are the two groups of sex organs and what does each contain?
Primary Sex Organs - produce gametes (ovaries, testes)
Secondary/Accessory Sex Organs - nourish gametes and transport them (glands, external genitalia)
What are the primary and secondary sex organs of the male?
Primary - Testes (produce sperm & testosterone)
- ducts deferens,
- ejaculatory duct,
- prostate gland
- bulbourethral gland
- seminal vesicle
- oval shaped gland that produces sperm and testosterone
- contain about 1,000 coiled seminiferous tubules (site of sperm production)
- dual-chambered protuberance of skin and muscle that encloses the testis, epididymis and spermatic cord
- copulatory organ that surrounds urethra
- contains three masses of erectile tissue
What is the round structure shown here?
What is their function and what are their cells?
- convoluted tubules which are sites of sperm production and maturation within testes
- Spermatogenic Cells - sperm-forming cells
- Sustentacular (Sertoli) Cells - support cells
Indicated by blue arrows:
- AKA spermatogenic cells
- stem cells within seminiferous tubules
What is it?
What is its function?
Sertoli (Sustentacular) Cells
- support cells which surround and nourish spermatogenic cells
- extend from basal lamina of tuble to lumen
- produce secretions
- what is its function?
- where are they?
Leydig (interstitial) Cells
- secretes testosterone into surrounding interstitial fluid
- surround seminiferous tubules
What is the process of sperm cell production called? And what are its two stages?
Stage 1: Meiosis
Stage 2: Spermiogenesis - spermatids differentiate into mature sperm
What are the stages of spermatogenesis from spermatogonium to spermatozoa?
Primary Spermatocyte (single diploid cell)
Secondary Spermatocyte (two haploids)
Early Spermatid (four haploid cells)
Late spermatid (now have flagella)
What is the order of the reproductive duct system in males from seminiferous tubule to urethra?
What do A, B and C make up?
What are its regions (A, B and C) ?
- coiled duct posterior to each testis
- connects tubules of testis to ductus deferens
- site of sperm maturation and storage
- Head - efferent ductules empty here (A)
- Body - middle portion just posterior to testis (B)
- Tail - end inferior to testis, just before ductus deferens (C)
Vas (Ductus) Deferens
- duct that carries sperm from epididymis to ejaculatory duct
- has thick muscularis layer in its wall
What is its covering and what does it contain?
- tube of fibrous CT that contains testicular blood vessels, nerves and vas deferens
- runs from inside scrotum, out via the inguinal canal
What is this passage?
- passage in anterior abdominal wall through which spermatic cord passes
- part of urethra extending through prostate gland
- part of urethra that travels through urogenital diaphragm
- AKA penile urethra
- part of urethra that passes through penis
Indicated by red arrow:
External Urethral Orifice
What are the three accessory glands of the male reproductive system?
Seminal Vesicles (paired)
Prostate Gland (single)
Bulbourethral Gland (paired)
- pair of glands that produce ~60% of volume of semen
- secretes fluid containing fructose (to nourish sperm) into ampulla of vas deferens
- duct where seminal vesicle meets vas deferens
- conducts sperm and seminal fluid into urethra
- round gland surrounding prostatic urethra
- 20-30 tubuloalveolar glands in dense CT and smooth muscle
- secretes ~1/3 of seminal fluid
- site where ejaculatory duct meets urethra
size? location? function?
Bulbourethral (or Cowper's) Glands
- pair of pea-sized mucus glands at base of penis, inferior to prostate, right at the level of the urogenital diaphragm
- produce mucus that cleanses the urethra of urine and lubricates it just prior to ejaculation
What is this covering?
- thick white fibrous capsule covering testis
What do #2 and #3 make up?
- serous covering of the testis
What are the three main parts of the penis?
Root - where it attaches to the body
Shaft - the body of the penis
Glans penis - the enlarged tip of the shaft
- foreskin of the penis
- two paired cylindrical bodies of erectile tissue
- dorsolaterally located on the penis
- single cylindrical body of erectile tissue surrounding urethra
- fills with blood during erection
What are the two groupings of sex organs in the female reproductive system (and their respective organs)?
Primary Organs - Ovaries
Secondary/Accessory Organs -
- mons pubis
- labia minora/majora
- fallopian tubes
- mammary glands
Functions of the Female Reproductive System
- produce gametes
- prepares to support developing embryo
- undergoes changes during menstrual cycle
Paired whitish glands here:
- how are they held in place?
- what is their functional unit?
- produce eggs and secrete estrogen and progesterone
- held in place by ligaments and mesenteries
- composed of Ovarian Follicles in which oocytes mature
What's this entire structure?
- oocytes surrounded by follicular cells
What are the stages of maturation of an ovarian follicle?
- least mature follicles
- indentified by its single layer of flattened follicular cells surrounding the oocyte
- second stage of follicular maturation
- larger oocyte surrounded by one ore more layers of cuboidal follicular cells
- secretes estrogen to stimulate change in uterine lining
- many layers of follicular cells around a much larger oocyte
- fluid-filled space called antrum now present
- AKA vesicular or mature follicle
- secondary oocyte, numerous layers of follicular cells and large crescent-shaped antrum (larger than antrum in secondary follicle
- egg cells
visible layer just inside folliculuar cells
- translucent glycoprotein coat around oocyte which sperm must penetrate in order to fertilize the egg
- innermost layer of follicular cells surrounding oocyte
- external to zona pellucida
- How does it happen?
- How often?
- About every 28 days a follicle ruptures at the surface of the ovary and the fimbriae usher it into the fallopian tube
#1 and #2
- "yellow body" part of follicle which remains in ovary after ovulation
- secretes estrogen and progesterone to stimulate buildup of uterine lining and prepare for possible oocyte fertilization
- in slides, much larger than follicles and have no visible oocytes
- degenerates into Corpus Albicans ("white body")
What does the black line indicate?
What process occurs here?
- AKA oviduct or uterine tube
- ducts that receive oocyte from fimbriae and conduct it towards the uterus
- attached to uterus, but not ovaries
- fertilization occurs within the fallopian tube
- finger-like projections on oviducts that extend into pelvic cavity
- contain cilia that beat toward the entrance of the oviduct, conducting eggs from ovaries into the duct
- funnel-shaped lateral margin of fallopian tube
- hollow organ between bladder and rectum
- receives, retains and nourishes fertilized egg
- implantation, placenta formation and fetal development occur here
- most inferior part of uterus
- muscular ring which projects into vagina
- superior dome-shaped region of uterus where oviducts enter
body of uterus
- main portion of uterus inferior to fundus
- tapers downward toward cervix
Yellow highlighted portion:
- slightly narrow region between body of uterus and cervix
What are the three layers of the uterine wall?
Perimetrium - outer visceral peritoneum
Myometrium - middle layer; bundles of smooth muscle
Endometrium - mucosal lining shed during menstruation
- outer visceral peritoneum
- thick layer of smooth muscle in uterine wall
- contracts during labor to expel the fetus
- innermost uterine layer
- mucus mebrane where embryo implants after arriving from uterine tube
- simple columnar epithelium and lamina propria
- sheds during menstruation if no pregnancy occurs
Green highlighted area:
- 4 to 6 inch tube between uterus and external genitalia that accepts the penis during sexual intercourse
- serves as passageway during childbirth
- has muscularis layer in its wall
- superior space in vagina formed by cervix' protrusion into vagina
Folds indicated by pencil and lines:
- folds of mucosa
- external opening of the vagina
- mound of skin and subcutaneous CT anterior to pubic symphysis
- covered with pubic hair in postpubescent females
- pair of external folds of fatty tissue lateral to labia minora
- covered with hair and sebaceous glands
- enclose the openings of the urethra and vagina, merging behind the vagina
- smaller hairless folds within labia majora
- enclose vestibule
- unite anteriorly to form clitoris
- small mass of erectile tissue at anterior meeting of the labia minora
- corresponds to the male penis
- fold of labia minora that covers clitoris
What is the space between the labia minora called?
- contains the vaginal orifice and urethral opening
AKA external urethral orifice
- Highlighted green area
- muscular tube that carries urine from bladder to exterior
What is this diamond-shaped area?
- bounded by pubic symphysis, ischial tuberosities and coccyx
- double layer of pelvic fascia with included muscle between ischial and pubic rami
- traversed by vagina, gives passage to membranous urethra and encloses urethral sphincter
What are the milk-producing glands called?
They are specialized versions of what kind of glands?
- specialized sweat glands
- 15-20 lobes, lactiferous duct of each opens at nipple
- present in both sexes, functional in lactating females only
What is this entire layer?
How is it distinguishable from other layers in slides?
(not just the arrow)
- innermost layer of uterus
- borders the endometrial cavity
- simple columnar epithelium and underlying lamina propria with simple tubular uterine glands (indicated by red arrow; these help distinguish it in slides)
What is the dark purple layer arcing above the smaller layer riddled with tubules?
- thick muscular middle layer of uterus
- three intertwining layers of smooth muscle
- outermost uterine layer; visceral peritoneum
- loose CT with lymphatic vessels