Cardiovascular Part III: Blood Vessels Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Part III: Blood Vessels Deck (97):

What are the three types of blood vessels?

Arteries - blood away from heart

Veins - blood towards heart

Capillaries - smallest, site of exchange btwn blood and tissue


What are the three layers of a blood vessel? And the central space filled with blood?

Known as the three tunics:

  1. Tunica intima (interna)
  2. Tunica media
  3. Tunica externa (adventitia)

The lumen is the central cavity.


Part A

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tunica interna (aka intima)

- innermost layer of blood vessels

- made up of three parts: simple squamous endothelium overlying basement membrane and fibrous subendothelium



part B

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Tunica media

- middle layer of blood vessels

- contains elastin & collagen for stretch & strength

- sheets of circularly arranged smooth muscle for vasoconstriction/dilation


part C

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tunica externa (adventitia)

- outermost layer of blood vessel

- areolar connective tissue

- anchors vessel to other structures


vessels on the right

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- carry blood away from heart

- thicker walls and smaller lumens than veins

- higher pressure


large 2.5-1 cm

medium - 1 - 0.3 cm

smallest arteries - 0.3 mm to 10 microm.


What are the two types of arteries and their attributes?

Elastic Arteries

  • high elastin content within tunica media allows stretch with each pulse
  • found in aorta, pulmonary arteries and their branches

Muscular Arteries

  • low overall elastin content; more smooth muscle
  • elastin-rich layers on either side of tunica media (elastic laminae)


layer B

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internal elastic lamina

- separates tunica intima from tunica media

- layer of elastic fibers in muscular arteries


part D

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external elastic lamina

- separates tunica media from tunica externa

- layer in muscular arteries


What are the smallest arteries called, how big are they and how do they differ from other arteries?


- range from 0.3 mm - 10 micrometers

- large arterioles have all three tunics; small have endothelium and smooth muscle only

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What are the small vessels in which molecule exchange with tissues occurs?

How big are they and what are their layers?


- 8-10 micrometers

- no tunics; endothelium & basement membrane only


What is this network of vessels called?

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Capillary Bed

- a network of capillaries that vascularizes tissues and carries blood between arteries and veins


Tissue Vascularization...

which tissues are vascular/avascular?

- Most tissues & organs are well vascularized

- Tendons & ligaments are poorly vascularized

- Epithelia & cartilage are avascular



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Precapillary Sphincter

- sphincters between the thoroughfare channel and the capillary bed which control capillary bed perfusion


What is the vessel through which blood can flow directly from arteries to veins when precapillary sphincters are closed?

Thoroughfare Channel


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What kind of blood vessel is this?

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- take oxygen-poor blood from capillaries to heart

- lower pressure

- thinner walls, larger lumens

- contain valves to counteract low pressure


What are the smallest veins called?


- 8-100 micrometers

- postcapillary venules are smallest venules

- join to form veins


What two mechanisms counteract low venous pressure and ensure unidirectional venous flow?

Valves - particularly in limbs

Skeletal muscle pump - muscles press against thin-walled veins

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What are the smaller vessels supplying the outsideof this larger vessels called?

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vasa vasorum (vessels of vessels)

- nourish outer region (tunica externa) of larger vessels



What are the two circulatory circuits? What are their functions and attributes?

- Pulmonary Circulation -

- to/from lungs

- uptake of O2, removal of CO2

Systemic Circulation - 

- vessels on left and right of trunk are asymmetrical; head and limbs are symmetrical

- carry O2, pick up CO2

- pickup & deliver nutrients

- nitrogenous waste to kidneys

- hormone and signal molecule transport


Describe the route of pulmonary circulation from heart to lungs and back.

Pulmonary trunk ---->

Pulmonary arteries---->

Lobar arteries (two to left, three to right) ----->

Branches along bronchi ---->

Arterioles ---->

Pulmonary capillaries ---->

Venules ---->

Larger veins ---->

Pulmonary veins ---->

Superior/inferior pulmonary veins ---->

Left atrium


What are the three parts of the aorta?

- ascending aorta - arises from ventricle ~ 5 cm

- aortic arch - arches posteriorly to the left, has arteries branching off superiorly

- descending aorta - posterior to heart, inferiorly along thoracic/lumbar vertebrae

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What are the three branches of the aortic arch (from right to left in anatomical position) ?

- Brachiocephalic Trunk - branches into right common carotid and righ subclavian

- Left Common Carotid Artery

- Left Subclavian Artery


What part of the largest artery is shown here with an aneurysm?

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abdominal aorta

- ends at L4

- distributes blood to celiac trunk, superior and inferior mesenteric, suprarenal, renal, gonadal, inferior phrenic and common iliac arteries


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right common carotid

- supplies head and neck

- divides into internal/external carotid arteries


vessel in green:

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internal carotid artery (left and right)

- supplies structures in skull via carotid canal

- interconnected with basilar artery in circle of Willis


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external carotid artery

- supplies structures external to skull (face, thyroid, tongue)

- commonly used to measure pulse


red vessel

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Vertebral Artery (left and right)

- supplies posterior brain

- emerge from subclavians, travel through transverse foramina of cervical vertabrae

- enter skull through foramen magnum

- merge into basilar artery


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right subclavian artery

- branches off of brachiocephalic trunk

- supplies upper limb 


What portion of this large artery is shown here with an aneurysm?

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thoracic aorta



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axillary artery (left and right)

- "armpit" artery

- supplies muscles of pectorals and axilla




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brachial artery (left and right)

- supplies arm

- continues down arm to antecubital fossa and branches into radial and ulnar arteries



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radial artery (left and right)

- supplies radial forearm

- branches off of brachial artery at antecubital fossa



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ulnar artery (left and right)

- supplies ulnar forearm

- branches off of brachial artery at antecubital fossa



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celiac trunk

- most superior of three unpaired branches of abominal aorta

- distributes blood to left gastric, splenic and common hepatic arteries

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common hepatic artery

- branches rightward off of celiac trunk toward liver

- supplies liver


marked "sa" here:

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splenic artery

- branches leftward off of celiac trunk toward spleen

- supplies spleen, stomach and pancreas


part B

left gastric artery

- branch of celiac trunk

- supplies stomach and esophagus


indicated by red arrow:

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superior mesenteric artery

- middle unpaired branch of abdominal aorta

- supplies pancreas, small intestine, appendix, and first 2/3 of large intestine


indicated by red arrow:

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inferior mesenteric artery

- supplies last third of large intestine

- most inferior unpaired branch of adominal aorta



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suprarenal arteries (left and right)

- supplies adrenal glands

- paired branches of abdominal aorta


arteries between aorta and kidneys:

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renal arteries (left and right)

- supplies kidney

- paired branches of abdominal aorta


paired arteries highlighted here:

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gonadal arteries (left and right)

- supplies testes in male, ovaries in female

- paired branches of abominal aorta


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common iliac artery (left and right)

- distributes blood to external and internal iliac arteries

- supplies pelvis and lower limbs

- branches off of inferior abominal aorta


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external iliac artery

- supplies lower limbs

- branches off of common iliac artery 


artery in green here:

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femoral artery (left and right)

- supplies lower abdominal wall, groin, external genitals and thigh

- continuation of external iliac artery


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internal iliac artery (left and right)

- extends from common iliac artery into pelvic region

- supplies pelvic walls and viscera, buttock, reproductive organs and medial thigh


vessel in green here:

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popliteal artery (left and right)

- supplies muscles in thigh and skin on posterior leg

- extension of femoral artery


artery highlighted pink here:

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anterior tibial artery (left and right)

- supplies knee joint, anterior leg muscles, anterior skin of leg and ankle joint

- branch of popliteal artery


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posterior tibial artery (left and right)

- supplies muscles, bones, and joints of leg and foot

- branch of popliteal artery



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fibular (or peroneal) artery (left and right)

- supplies lateral lower leg

- branch off of posterior tibial artery


vessel in green here:

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dorsalis pedis artery (left and right)

- supplies muscles, skin and joints of dorsal foot

- continuation of anterior tibial artery


What is this entire circuit of blood vessels called?

What is its significance/function?

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Cerebral Arterial Circle (or Circle of Willis)

- an important anastomosis of arteries around the sella turcica

- equalizes blood pressure in the brain

- provides collateral channels if one vessel becomes blocked


a communication between blood vessels




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basilar artery

- formed by merging of l. and r. vertebral arteries

- travels immediately anterior to pons

- extends many branches

- divides into posterior cerebral arteries



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anterior cerebral arteries

- supplies blood to most medial portions of frontal lobes and superior medial parietal lobes



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middle cerebral arteries (left and right)

- arises from internal carotid

- supplies lateral cerebral cortex, anterior temporal lobes and insular cortices



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posterior cerebral arteries (left and right)

- supplies posterior cerebrum




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anterior communicating artery

- connects two anterior cerebral arteries



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posterior communicating artery (left and right)

- branches of posterior cerebral arteries

- communicate with middle cerebral arteries


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superior vena cava

- receives blood from right and left brachiocephalic veins

- drains head, neck, chest and upper limbs



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brachiocephalic veins (left and right)

- receives blood from external jugular, vertebral and internal jugular veins

- drains head, neck, upper limbs, mammary glands and superior thorax into superior vena cava


#2 and #8

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internal jugular veins (right and left, respectively)

- drain cranium, neck and face

- drain into brachiocephalic veins



vein whose name is blacked out here:

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external jugular vein (left and right)

- drain neck, face, salivary glands, and scalp


#3 and #4

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subclavian arteries (left and right)

- receive blood from axillary veins

- drains arms, neck, thoracic wall


area highlighted blue:

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axillary vein (left and right)

- drains arms, axillae, superolateral chest wall

- extends into subclavian vein


vessel indicated in green:

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cephalic vein (left and right)

- drains lateral surface of upper limb

- on radial side of forearm as well


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brachial vein (left and right)

- drains forearm, wrist and hand



part B

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basilic vein (left and right)

- drains medial surface of upper limb

- continues down forearm on ulnar side


part A

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median cubital vein (left and right)

- drains forearm

- where IVs are often given in antecubital fossa


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radial vein (left and right)

- drains radial forearm

- joins with ulnar vein to form brachial vein


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ulnar vein (left and right)

- drains ulnar forearm

- joins with radial vein to form brachial vein


largest vessel shown here:

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inferior vena cava

- receives blood from hepatic, gonadal, lumbar, phrenic, suprarenal, renal and common iliac veins

- drains abdomen, pelvis, lower limbs into right atrium


the veins here labeled RHV, MHV, LHV: 

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hepatic veins

- drains the liver


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hepatic portal vein

- drains venous blood from spleen, stomach and intestines to liver for processing 


vein highlighted green here:

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suprarenal veins (left and right)

- drains adrenal glands



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renal veins (left and right)

- drains kidney


highlighted blue here:

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gonadal veins (left and right)

- left drains into left renal vein, right drains into inferior vena cava

- drains testes in males, ovaries in females


highlighted vein here:

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lumbar veins (left and right)

- drains posterolateral abdominal wall


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common iliac veins (left and right)

- branch off of inferior end of inferior vena cava

- receive blood from external and interal iliac veins

- drain pelvis and lower limbs



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internal iliac vein (left and right)

- drains pelvic muscles, skin, urinary and reproductive organs in pelvic cavity 


green arrows

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external iliac vein

- drains lower limb


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femoral vein (left and right)

- drains muscles of thigh, femur, external genitals and superficial lymph nodes


green vessel:

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popliteal vein (left and right)

- drain knee joint and skin, muscles, bones of calf and thigh near knee


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great saphenous vein (left and right)

- drains medial leg and thigh, groin, external genitalia, abdominal wall

- largest superficial vein


starred area:

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superior sagittal sinus

- superior to longitudinal fissure

- drains into one  of transverse sinuses


marked TS here:

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transverse sinus

- run in shallow grooves on internal surface of occipital bone


dural venous sinuses

- several large veins that drain venous blood of cranium

- formed between periosteal and meningeal layer of dura mater

- receive excess CSF from arachnoid villi


vein in blue here:

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splenic vein

- drains spleen

- meets with inferior mesenteric vein to form hepatic portal vein

- part of hepatic portal system, drains into liver before returning to heart


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inferior mesenteric vein

- drains into splenic vein where they form hepatic portal vein

 - drains blood from large intestine into hepatic portal system for hepatic processing before return to the heart


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superior mesenteric vein

- vertically positioned vein draining small intestine and part of large intestine

- part of hepatic portal system


hepatic portal system (and its veins)

- a venous network that drains GI blood to the liver for absorption and processing of digested materials

made up of:

  • splenic vein
  • inferior mesenteric vein
  • superior mesenteric vein


Fetal vs. Postnatal Circulation

- the fetus supplies blood to the placenta

- very little blood sent thru pulmonary circuit because the lungs are undeveloped and non-functioning


How does blood bypass the pulmonary circuit in fetal circulation?

Via the foramen ovale, a hole in the interatrial septum which becomes the fossa ovalis after birth


via the ductus arteriosus, a vessel connecting the pulmonary artery and proximal descending aorta which becomes the ligamentum arteriosum after birth

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How does fetal blood bypass the liver?

via the ductus venosus, which shunts umbilical vein blood flow directly to the inferior vena cava and becomes the ligamentum venosum after birth


How does the fetus drain blood to the placenta?

- via the paired umbilical arteries which run from the abominopelvic region of the fetus into the umbilical cord

- they become the medial umbilical ligaments after birth


How does the fetus receive blood supply from the placenta?

via the unpaired umbilical vein which carries oxygenated blood to the fetus and becomes the ligamentum teres after birth