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Flashcards in The Brain Deck (100):
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entire colored portion of image

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Cerebrum

functions: conscious thought, intellectual function, memory, complex involuntary motor patterns

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Posterior pink portion

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Occipital Lobe

- interpretation of visual stimuli

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Anterior blue portion

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Frontal Lobe

- higher intelligence, verbal communication, voluntary motor control

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Middle yellow portion

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Parietal Lobe

- sensory interpretation, understanding speech, formulating words

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inferior green portion

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Temporal Lobe

- interpret auditory and olfactory sensations; understand speech

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name of the entire structure in red

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diencephalon

contains the thalamus, hypothalamus and pineal gland

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purple posteroinferior part

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cerebellum

- 2 lobes connected medially

- complex, skilled movement; maintenance of equilibrium; regulates posture/balance

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area in red

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Brainstem

 

3 parts:

  1. midbrain (mesencephalon)
  2. pons
  3. medulla oblongata

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Midbrain

AKA mesencephalon

- between the pons and diencephalon

- process visual and audio info, involuntary somatic motor response

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Pons

- between midrain and medulla oblongata

- connects cerebellum to brain stem

- somatic and visceral motor control; breath control

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medulla oblongata

- continuous with superior spinal cord

- relays sense info from spinal cord and brain stem to cerebral cortex

- heart/respiratory rate; vomitting; hiccupping; swallowing; coughing; sneezing

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right and left sides of cerebrum

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Cerebral Hemispheres

 

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deep midsagittal groove between hemispheres

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longitudinal fissure

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aqua-colored groove between cerebrum and cerebellum

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transverse fissure of cerebrum

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yellow line between temporal and parietal/frontal lobes

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lateral sulcus

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blue line

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central sulcus

- separates frontal and parietal lobes

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groove between parietal and occipital lobes

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parieto-occipital sulcus

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precentral gyrus

- just anterior to central sulcus

- primary motor area

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postcentral gyrus

- primary somatosensory area

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red spot marked with japanese characters

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Insula

- deep to lateral sulcus

- interpretation of taste; memory

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outermost layer indicated by green

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cerebral cortex

- outer sheet of grey matter

- gyri/sulci act to triple its surface area

- 6 layers of neurons within cortex

- Brodmann areas - 52 areas performing different motor/sensory functions

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corpus callosum

- bundle of axons linking left and right hemispheres

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- light grey area indicated by pointer

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septum pellucidum

- just inferior to corpus callosum

- separates lateral ventricles

- white and grey matter

- pleasure, mood, rage, etc.

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entire structure

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fornix

- thin c-shaped bundle of axons that connects hippocampus to the mamillary bodies of the hypothalamus

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part A

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anterior commissure

- bundle of white matter axons connecting the hemispheres anterior to the fornix

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part B

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posterior commissure

- white matter fibers connecting hemispheres between pineal gland and superior colliculi

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Small pinecone-shaped gland in posterior roof of diencephalon

Pineal gland

- secretes melatonin; controls biological clock; mood; onset of puberty

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gland marked by #2

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pituitary gland

- sits in sella turcica of sphenoid

 

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paired, irregular masses of gray matter deep in central cerebral white matter

basal region of cerebral hemispheres

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basal (or cerebral) nuclei (or ganglia)

3 main nuclei:

- Caudate nuclei

- Lentiform Nucleus, made up of:

  • Globus pallidus - w/ putamen
  • Putamen - lateral to thalamus

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Caudate Nucleus

- part of basal nuclei on either side of lateral ventricles

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flesh-colored egg-shaped foreground structure connected to multiple strands of tissue superiorly

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Putamen

- lateral part of Lentiform Nucleus

- lateral to the thalamus

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small, green background structure which lies on the medial sides of the basal nuclei

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Globus Pallidus

- medial portion of Lentiform Nucleus

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round, egg-shaped portion of the basal nuclei shown here

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Lentiform Nucleus

- made up of Putamen (lateral) and Globus pallidus (medial)

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group of axons passing to/from cortex between cerebral nuclei

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internal capsule

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thalamus

- large oval structure in diencephalon on either side of third ventricle

- main relay center for sensory input

- two pieces connected by interthalamic adhesion

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another name for central part here called "massa intermedia"

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interthalamic adhesion

- gray matter connecting left and right thalamic masses

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"floor" of diencephalon, controls and integrates autonomic nervous system and pituitary gland

hypothalamus

- regulates emotions, behavior, circadian rhythm

- controls body temperature, eating/drinking

- produces hormones

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thin stalk attaching hypothalamus to pituitary gland

infundibulum

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small, paired orange structures

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mamillary bodies

- paired hypothalamic nuclei that process olfactory sensations

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corpora quadrigemina

- four lobes on posterior midbrain

- vision and hearing 

- broken into superior and inferior colliculi

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superior colliculi

- top 2 lobes of corpora quadrigemina

- visual tracking of moving objects and reflexes of eye/head in response to visual stimuli

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inferior colliculi

- reflexive turning of head and eyes in response to sound

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- upper part of red area

- stalks that anchor cerebrum to brain stem

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cerebral peduncles

- descending axon bundles carry voluntary motor signals through here

- anterolateral surfaces of midbrain

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bulge in brainstem directly anterior to cerebellum

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Pons

- ascending sensory and descending motor tracts

- connected to cerebellum via peduncles

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transverse fibers connecting pons to cerebellum

cerebellar peduncles

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ridge-like structures on ventral side of medulla oblongata

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pyramids

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prominent oval structures on either side of medulla oblongata

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olives

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the two halves of the cerebellum

the right and left cerebellar hemispheres

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vermis

- narrow cortex along cerebellar midline

- termination of pathway for subconcious proprioception

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- outer surface of pink structure 

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 cerebellar cortex

- made up of gray matter

- folds called folia (not sulci/gyri)

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branching within split structure

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arbor vitae

- white matter within cerebellum

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lateral ventricles

- c-shaped ventricles in cerebral hemispheres

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#2

(this is object represents negative space within the brain)

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interventricular foramen

- opening between lateral ventricles

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#3

(again, this object represents negative space)

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third ventricle

- located between cerebral hemispheres

- contains the interthalamic adhesion

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#4

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cerebral aqueduct (AKA mesencephalic aqueduct)

- slender canal that connects the third and fourth ventricles

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#5

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fourth ventricle

- between pons and cerebellum

- is continuous with central canal of spinal cord

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Not the ventricle, but the central hole in its roof which drains CSF

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median aperature

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Not the ventricle, but the paired holes that drain CSF from the sides of its roof

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lateral aperatures

- drain CSF into subarachnoid space

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not the ventricle, but the lining within it that creates CSF

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Choroid Plexus

- layer of ependymal cells and capillaries within invaginations of pia mater

- creates and circulates (via cilia) the CSF

- rich in capillaries

- located in roof of III and IV ventricles

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4 Protectors of the Brain

- skull

- meninges

- cerebrospinal fluid

- blood-brain barrier

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Meninges

- connective tissue layers that cover and protect the CNS, protecting the vessels that supply them and containing cerebrospinal fluid

- 3 layers: Dura mater, Arachnoid mater, Pia mater

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toughest, outer layer of meninges

Dura Mater

- dense irregular CT

- 2 layers: periosteal (superficial) and meningeal (deep)

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middle meningeal layer

Arachnoid mater

- in contact with dura mater

- sits above hollow sub-arachnoid space which contains CSF

- arachnoid villi protrude into dural sinuses 

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central blue triangular space

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dural sinus

- space between periosteal and meningeal layers of dura mater which contain blood and arachnoid villi

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branchings of sub-arachnoid space into the central blue area 

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arachnoid villi

- bring CSF back to venous blood of dural sinuses

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part I

layer of dura mater in longitudinal fissure between cerebral hemispheres

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falx cerebri

- attaches anteriorly to crista galli of ethmoid bone

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ventral structure marked TC

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tentorium cerebelli

- layer of dura mater separating cerebellum and inferior occipital lobes

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smaller, inferiorly-oriented structure below darker green transverse plane structures

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falx cerebelli

 - dura mater extension in between the lobes of the cerebellum

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left area highlighted by teal line

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subarachnoid space

- between arachnoid and pia mater meninges

- contains CSF and arachnoid trabeculae

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thin purple branches within teal highlighted area on left

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arachnoid trabeculae

- delicate strands of CT that loosely connect A. mater and P. mater

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light blue layer just superficial to cerebral cortex

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Pia mater

- loose CT

- contains blood vessels

- adheres closely to brain & SC, going deep into sulci

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fluid which fills these blue spaces (as well as surrounding the brain and spinal cord)

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cerebrospinal fluid

- created by the choroid plexuses which are lined by ciliated ependymal cells that produce and circulate the fluid

 

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Functions of Cerebrospinal Fluid

- Buoyancy: reduces brain weight

- Nourishes brain and SC

- Removes wastes

- Carries chemical signals throughout CNS

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Spinal cord meninges

- Same three layers as around brain, but some differences

Dura mater: no periosteal layer

Arachnoid mater: same as around brain

Pia mater: adheres directly to SC

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Production and Resorption of CSF

  1. CSF produced by ependymal cells of choroid plexus in ventricles
  2. Flows through cerebral aqueduct into IV ventricle
  3. Exits ventricles through lateral/median aperatures of IV ventricle to subarachnoid space and central canal of SC
  4. Does its job (remove waste, nourish, etc.)
  5. Excess drains through arachnoid villi into veinous blood of dural sinuses

 

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blue space indicated by black line

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superior sagittal sinus

- dural sinus along longitudinal fissure

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protective system created by action of blue cell on purple structure shown here: 

blood brain barrier

- prevents blood borne-toxins from entering brain

- formed by astrocyte processes which reduce capillary permeability

- nutrients (02) and fat-soluble molecules pass through

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rostral

- term used for toward the nose/forehead in reference to brain anatomy

- synonymous with anterior

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toward the tail/cord of the brain

caudal

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Complex Neural Functions of the Brain

  • intelligence
  • consciousness
  • memory
  • sensory-motor integration
  • innervation of head (via cranial nerves)

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What and where is gray matter?

- forms cortex of cerebrum

- contains:

  • motor neuron and interneuron cell bodies
  • dendrites
  • telodendria
  • unmyelinated axons

- found in clusters (nuclei) deep within white matter

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white matter

- contains myelinated axons

- lies deep to gray matter

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shallow grooves separating gyri

sulci (singular: sulcus)

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elevated ridges of cerebrum

gyri (singular: gyrus)

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deeper (than sulci) grooves in cerebrum

fissures

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general term for axon bundles that connect cerebral hemispheres

Tract

- 3 main ones:

  • Corpus Callosum
  • Anterior Commissure
  • Posterior Commissure

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functional differences between the cerebral hemispheres

hemisphere lateralization 

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the reception of sensory information and projection of motor commands by cerebral hemispheres from and to opposite sides of the body

contralateral control

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pyramidal cell

- triangular dendrites within the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and amygdala

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entire green area

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limbic system

- complex set of brain structures (notably amygdala, hippocampus and cingulate gyrus) that lies on both sides of thalamus just under the cerebrum

- plays an important role in emotion and memory

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What and where are the sensory areas?

- areas of cortex involved in awareness of sensory stimuli

- located in parietal, temporal, occipital lobes

- distinct areas for each major sense

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Functions of Sensory Areas

- receive sensory inputs

- locate stimulus (spatial discrimination)

- creates conscious awareness of sensory input

- integrates sensory input

- draws upon and compares current input to past inputs

 

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sensory homunculus

- a somatotopy of the postcentral gyrus which indicates which areas of the gyrus are dedicated to sensory input from which organs

- area dedicated to sensations from certain body part is proportional in size to the sensitivity of that body part (ex: more area for tongue than legs)

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What do the motor areas do?

- receive processed information about sensory input and control voluntary actions accordingly

- also involved in planning movements

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How does the brain control motor movement?

- motor intentions begin in 'motor association' area of frontal lobes

- precentral gyrus relays motor signals to spinal cord

- messages from one side of brain supply contralaterally-located muscles

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pyramidal cells that originate in the cerebral cortex or brain stem and carry motor information toward the muscles but do not directly innervate them

upper motor neuron

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motor area involved in speech production and controlling emotional overtones of speech

Broca's Areas

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area involved in understanding of written and spoken language

Wernicke's area

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motor homunculus

- map of the pre