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Flashcards in Breast Deck (39):
1

what is the leading cause of cancer death among women between 40 and 50 years of age?

breast cancer

2

what are the 3 layers of breast tissue?

subcutaneous, mammary/glandular, retromarrary

3

the functional portion of the breast is made of lobes which contain

ducts and milk producing glands

4

most tumors are found

in the upper outer quadrant where there is a higher concentration of lobes
most originate in the ducts

5

what are Cooper's ligaments

connective tissues in the mammary layer that form a fibrous skeleton responsible for maintaining breast shape

6

what is the primary purpose of screening

detection and diagnosis of breast cancer in its earliest forms

7

how does breast fat appear on ultrasound

hypoechoic to surrounding tissue

8

breast ducts appear as

anechoic tubular structures

9

fibrous components such as Cooper's ligament appear

as bright linear echoes

10

glandular/parenchymal tissues appear

homogeneous with medium to low level echoes

11

what is gynecomastia

condition in which the ductal elements hypertrophy in the male breast

12

what are the 6 risk factors that can increase a male's risk of breast cancer

Klinefelter's sydrome
male to female transexual
history of prior chest wall irradiation
history of orchitis or testicular torsion
liver disease
genetic disposition

13

what are the 4 sonographic applications

-determining composition of breast mass
-ruling out presence of lymph node masses that often accompany breast cancer
-evaluating breast implants
-guided aspirations and biopsies as an alternative to surgical procedures

14

spiculations are indicative of

malignancy

15

sonographically spiculations appear

as finger like projections, the walls may look fuzzy or indistinct

16

retraction of the nipple or dimpling of the skin may be caused by

malignant lesions which grow through breast tissue and pull on Cooper's ligaments

17

if a mass measures longer in AP direction than transverse, the mass has a ______ orientation

vertical and is suspicious for malignancy

18

which is suspicious for malignancy? hyperechoic or hypoechoic

hypoechoic

19

posterior shadowing masses tend to be

malignant

20

is a mass benign or malignant if it tends to roll away when it is palpated

benign

21

if a mass has increased vascularity or vessels penetrate the mass it is probably

malignant

22

what are the 3 symptoms of fibrocystic condition

-lumps and pain that fluctuate with monthly cycle
-both breasts are equally involved
-may affect only one area of the breast

23

how does fibrocystic condition appear on sonography?

multiple round masses seen as multiple cysts

24

what is the most common benign breast tumor

fibroadenoma

25

how does fibroadenoma occur

disturbances of normal hormonal mechanism

26

3 symptoms of fibroadenoma

firm
rubbery
freely mobile

27

5 sonographic findings of fibroadenoma

round or oval
smooth or lobulated
low level homogeneous echoes
usually hypoechoic
posterior enhancement

28

mastitis may result from (3)

infection
trauma
mechanical obstruction in breast ducts

29

3 symptoms of mastitis

enlarged breasts
reddened breasts
tenderness

30

where will carcinoma most often occur

upper outer quadrant

31

4 symptoms of carcinoma

hard fixed mass
nipple discharge
nipple itching or burning
change in breast symmetry or size

32

5 sonographic findings of carcinoma

hypoechoic
angled, irregular margins, microlobulation
posterior shadowing
calcifications
taller than wide

33

what is ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

cancer cells present in ducts but haven't spread through walls into tissue

34

2 sonographic findings for DCIS

ductal enlargement
calcifications within duct

35

what is invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) or infiltrating ductal carcinoma

begins in ducts and invades fatty tissue
has potential to metastasize via bloodstream and lymphatic system

36

3 sonographic findings for IDC

solid hypoechoic
posterior shadowing
irregular and ill defined

37

IDC accounts for ______ of all breast cancers

80%

38

infiltrating lobular carcinoma accounts for less than _____ of all breast cancers

10%

39

3 sonographic findings of infiltrating lobular carcinoma

hypoechoic
irregular, angle shaped margins
posterior enhancement possible