Flashcards in abdominal pathology midterm Deck (54):
Which of the following is a type of aneurysm?
What is one of the symptoms for a ruptured aneurysm?
A. increased hematocrit
C. low back pain
D. all of the above are symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm
What measurement indicates an abdominal aneurysm?
A. 1 cm
B. > 3cm
C. < 3 cm
D. 3 cm
A pulsatile hematoma which results from the leakage of blood into the soft tissue adjacent to a punctured artery is a ______?
A. saccular aneurysm
B. fusiform aneurysm
C. aortic dissection
What is the most common cause of an aneurysm?
B. alcohol abuse
What are the acceptable treatment option for abdominal aneurysm that measures 6cm?
A. nothing this is normal
B. evaluate it every 6 months using ultrsound
D. this size is considered to high risk for surgery
What is the primary function of the aorta?
A. pump unoxygenated blood to the body
B. pump oxygenated blood to the heart
C. pump unoxygenated blood to the heart
D. pump oxygenated blood to the body
A 55 year old man is seen for a routine physical examination. During the examination, the physicians feels a pulsatile mass at the level of the umbilicus. An ultrasound is ordered for which of the following indications?
A. to rule out rupture
B. to rule out dissection
C. to rule out abdominal aortic aneurysm
D. to rule out atherosclerotic disease
The first branch off the abdominal aorta is:
A. Celiac axis
B. Superior mesenteric artery
C. Inferior mesenteric vein
D. Superior mesenteric vein
A 40 year old man with a history of Marfan syndrome is seen with intense chest pain in the emergency department. Which of the following diagnoses should should be the primary consideration?
A. aortic rupture
B. aortic aneurysm
C. aortic dissection
D. heart attack
What are two vessels that are nonresistive? A. splenic artery
C. renal artery
D. femoral artery
A & C
What is used to prevent thrombi from traveling to the lungs and becoming pulmonary emboli?
A. surgica removal of thrombus
C. blood thinner
D. bed rest
Enlargement of the IVC, with subsequent enlargement of the hepatic veins, is seen in cases of:
A. right sided heart failure
B. Budd-Chiari syndrome
C. Marfan syndrome
D. left sided heart failure
What veins join to form the IVC?
A. Iliac Veins
B. Iliac Arteries
C. Renal Veins
D. Renal Arteries
What are the largest tributaries to the IVC?
A. Superior Mesenteric Vein
B. Renal Veins
C. Iliac Veins
D. Hepatic Veins
Which of the following statements about the IVC is not true?
A. respirations can affect the size of the IVC
B. the diameter of the IVC is variable
C. the IVC is located to the left of the abdominal aorta
D. the IVC is considered retroperitoneal in location
The most common tumor to invade the IVC is
A. islet cell carcinoma
B. renal cell carcinoma
C. venous angioma
Question 19 of 25 1.0 Points
What is an example of a high resistive vessel.
B. hepatic artery
C. renal artery
D. splenic artery
The most common origin of pulmonary embolism arives from the:
A. lower extremities
B. upper extremities
Which of the following is a symptom of complete IVC thrombosis?
C. elevated hematocrit
D. back pain
What is the most common intraluminal pathology of the IVC?
B. enlargment of the IVC
D. renal cell carcinoma
What is a difference in nonresitive and resisitive blood vessels?
A. nonresistive vessels have little or no diastolic flow
B. resistive vessels provide constant profusion to organs
C. nonresistive vessels provide constant profusion to organs
D. resistive vessels have high diastolic flow
What is the normal gallbladder wall measurement?
A. > 6mm
B. < 6mm
C. < 3mm
D. > 3mm
What is the most common disease of the gallbladder?
B. gallbladder carcinoma
D. porcelain GB
Courvoisier's gallbladder is associated with which of the following:
B. chronic diverticulitis
C. a pancreatic head mass
D. galbladder carcinoma
What structures join to form the common bile duct?
A. common bile duct and hepatic ducts
B. right and left hepatic ducts
C. common hepatic duct and cystic duct
D. common bile duct and cystic duct
The yellowish staining of the whites of the eyes and the skin secondary to a liver disorder or biliary obstruction is referred to as:
B. AIDS cholangitis
You have been asked to rule out the presence of choledocholithiasis. What are you looking for?
A. inflammation with thickening of the gallbladder wall
B. stones within the common bile duct
C. calcified gallbladder wall
D. contracted gallbladder filled with stones
A 74 year old woman is seen with RUQ pain, jaundice, and nausea and vomiting. Ultrasound of the gallbladder reveals cholelithiasis. In addition, a 3 cm, cauliflower shaped mass is seen arising from a stalk within the gallbladder fundus. This is most suggestive of which of the following?
C. gallbladder carcinoma
D. gallbladder perforation
Hartmann pouch involves which part of the gallbladder:
D. phrygian cap
You suspect intrahepatic bile duct dilatation in a patient with right upper quadrant pain and tenderness. How can you differentiate the dilated bile ducts from intrahepatic veins?
A. dilated bile ducts demonstrate irregular, tortuous walls
B. bile ducts will not demonstrate flow with color Doppler
C. intrahepatic portal veins show increased through transmission compared to the dilated bile ducts
D. A and B
The primary role of the biliary system is
A. to aid in digestion by storing bile
B. to secrete hormones
C. to produce bile
D. to form gallstones
The most common sign for carcinoma of the gallbladder is:
A. mass changing with position changes
B. gallbladder wall thickening
C. shadowing posterior to the gallbladder
D. irregular immobile mass that contains low-intensity echoes within the gallbladder
Normal diameter for the common bile duct is _________________.
A. 1 mm
B. 6 mm
C. 3 mm
D. 10 mm
WES sign denotes:
A. a gallbaldder filled with cholelithiasis
B. multiple biliary stones and biliary dilatation
C. the presence of a gallstone lodged in the cystic duct
D. the sonographic sign of a porcelain gallbladder
What is the most common cause of acute cholecystitis?
C. calculus obstruction of the gallbladder neck or cystic duct
D. gallstone lodged in the fundus of the gallbladder
A renal ultrasound is ordered for a patient in ICU with renal failure, TPN and a long history of hospitalization. During imaging of the right kidney, the sonographer notices that the gallbladder contains low-level echoes that layer and are gravity dependent. This is most consistent with which of the following?
Focal tenderness over the gallbladder with probe pressure describes:
A. murphy sign
B. strawberry sign
C. hydrops sign
D. courvoisier sign
This liver function test can be elevated due to a blockage of the ducts.
A. Alkaline Phosphatase
What is one of the common causes of fatty infiltrate of the liver?
B. intravenous drug use
C. over usage of tylenol
Which of the following is a sonographic finding of fatty infiltrate of the liver?
A. atrophy of affected lobes
B. prominent portal vein
C. increase echogenicity
D. posterior enhancement
Inflammatory or infectious disease of the liver can also be called________________.
A. fatty infiltrate
C. Budd-Chiari syndrome
Hepatitis B can be spread:
B. uninfected blood or plasma
D. through sexual contact
Sonographic appearance of acute hepatitis:
B. normal GB wall
C. atrophy of the liver
D. extreme increase in echogencity
When is hepatitis considered chronic?
A. 3-6 months with acute hepatitis
B. 6-9 months with acute hepatitis
C. 12 months with acute hepatitis
D. 18 with acute hepatitis
What is the most common cause of cirrhosis?
A. drug abuse
D. alcohol abuse
Which of the following is a symptom of chronic cirrhosis?
A. increase hematocrit
C. weight gain
What is the most common benign tumor of the liver?
A. cavernous hemangioma
C. focal nodular hyperplasia
D. liver cysts
A 70-year old woman is seen for malaise and wasting. The clinician orders an abdominal ultrasound because of the patient's history of colon cancer and elevated liver function tests. The sonographer notes multiple hyperechoic lesions within the liver and hepatomegaly. This is suggestive of:
B. metastatic disease
C. hepatocellular carcinoma
A 45-year old man with a history of hepatitis is seen for ultrasound examintation of the abdomen. The sonographer identifies a 6 cm complex mass in the liver. This would be suspicious for which of the following tumors?
A. hepatocellular carcinoma
Which hepatic mass is closely associated with oral contraceptive use?
Ascites is the accumulation of fluid in which cavity?
A. Peritoneal cavity
B. Perirenal Space
C. Morison’s pouch
D. Subphrenic space
The smallest lobe of the liver that lies anterior to the inferior vena cava; superior border is the ligamentum venosum is the:
A. caudate lobe
B. middle lobe
C. left lobe
D. right lobe