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Flashcards in pancreas Deck (83):
1

which enzyme parallels in elevation to amylase?

lipase

2

when will pancreatitis occur?

when pancreatic tissue becomes damaged as a result of increased secretion and blockage of ducts

3

4 causes of pancreatitis

alcoholism, trauma, peptic ulcer disease, biliary tract disease

4

what are the 5 B's?

booze, blood, bile, bug, birth

5

what causes acute pancreatitis?

release of pancreatic enzymes into the surrounding tissue

6

what is the most common cause of pancreatitis in the US?

biliary tract disease

7

5 acute pancreatits symptoms

nausea, abdominal pain, fever, malaise, jaundice

8

5 clinical signs of acute pancreatitis

pleural effusion, pancreatic ascites, gallstones, lipase and amylase elevation

9

5 complications of acute pancreatitis

pseudocyst, phlegmon, abscess, hemorrhage, duodenal obstruction

10

sonographic findings of acute pancreatitis

swelling/enlargement, hypoechoic or anechoic, borders may be indistinct, compression of IVC

11

what is hemorrhagic pancreatitis?

rapid progression of acute pancreatitis with rupture of vessels and hemorrhage

12

what may cause focal areas of necrosis?

hemorrhagic pancreatitis

13

5 sonographic findings of hemorrhagic pancreatitis

enlarged pancreas, decreased echogenicity, depends on age of hemorrhage, well defined homogeneous mass, areas of necrosis

14

what is Grey Turner's sign?

discoloration of glands due to necrosis of vessels resulting in hemorrhage

15

5 sonographic findings of chronic pancreatitis

increased echogenicity, decreased size, irregular borders, calcifications, dilated pancreatic duct

16

what causes a pseudocyst to develop?

enzymes that escape and break down tissue somewhere in the abdomen

17

what is the most common primary neoplasm of the pancreas?

adenocarcinoma

18

T or F? adenocarcinoma is the 4th most common cause of cancer related deaths

true

19

most common site for adenocarcinoma

pancreatic head

20

3 symptoms of adenocarcinoma

unexplained weight loss, palpable gallbladder, epigastric pain

21

how does cystadenoma appear and what may it be confused with?

thick walls, septa, cystic appearance
may be confused with pseudocyst

22

what is the malignant counterpart to cystadenomas?

cystadenocarcinoma

23

2 types of islet cell tumors

functioning--do produce hormones
nonfunctioning--do not produce hormones

24

how does the most common islet cell tumor appear?

B-cell tumor appears as numerous small lesions in body and tail

25

What are acinar cells?

the cells of the pancreas that carry out the exocrine function and therefore produce amylase, lipase, and sodium bicarbonate

26

What is acute pancreatitis?

inflammation of the pancreas secondary to the leakage of the pancreatic enzymes from the acinar cells into the parenchyma of the organ

27

What is the ampulla of Vater?

the merging point of the pancreatic duct and CBD just before the sphincter of Oddi, AKA hepatopancreatic ampulla

28

What is chronic pancreatitis?

the recurring destruction of the pancreatic tissue that results in atrophy, fibrosis, scarring, and the development of calcification within the gland

29

What is chyme?

partially digested food

30

Double-duct sign

co-existing enlargement of the cbd and pancreatic duct

31

What is duct of Santorini?

the accessory duct of the pancreas

32

What is the duct of Wirsung?

the main pancreatic duct

33

What is gastrinoma?

an islet cell tumor found within the pancreas

34

What is insulinoma?

an islet cell tumor found within the pancreas

35

What are the isles of Langerhans?

small islands of tissue found within the pancreas that produce insulin and glucagon

36

What are islet cell tumors?

tumor found within the islet of Langerhans of the pancreas

37

What is the most common form of pancreatic malignancy?

pancreatic adenocarcinoma

38

What is pancreatic adenocarcinoma?

the most common form of pancreatic malignancy; typically found in the head of the pancreas

39

What is a pancreatic pseudocyst?

a cyst surrounded by fibrous tissue that consists of pancreatic enzymes that have leaked from the pancreas

40

Whipple AKA

pancreaticoduodenectomy

41

What is phlegmon?

the peripancreatic fluid collection that results from the inflammation of the pancreas

42

what is the sphincter of Oddi?

the muscle that controls the emptying of bile and pancreatic juices into the duodenum; AKA hepatopancreatic sphincter

43

What is the uncinate process?

posteriormedial extension of the pancreatic head

44

What is von-Hippel-Lindau disease?

a hereditary disease that includes the development of cysts within the pancreas and other organs

45

What is Zollinger-Ellison syndrome?

syndrome that includes an excessive secretion of acid by the stomach caused by the presence of a functional gastrinoma within the pancreas

46

The pancreas functions as what two types of glands?

exocrine and endocrine

47

Where is the pancreas located?

in the epigastrium between the C-loop of the duodenum and the splenic hilum

48

Is the pancreas peritoneal or retroperitoneal?

retroperitoneal

49

What is the pancreas primarily?

an exocrine gland that aids in digestion

50

What does the amylase do?

digests carbs

51

What does lipase do?

digests fats

52

What does sodium bicarbonate do?

neutralizes stomach acid

53

What do trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxpolypeptidase do?

digest proteins

54

The endocrine function of the pancreas is performed by what?

isles of langerhans

55

The duct of Santorini is a branch from

the main pancreatic duct

56

The arterial supply to the head pancreas is from what?

gastroduodenal artery

57

The arterial supply to the body and tail of the pancreas is from

the splenic artery and SMA

58

What body position may help to visualize the pancreas?

left lateral decub

59

The pancreas is typically measured in what dimension?

AP dimension in the transverse scan plane

60

What are causes of acute pancreatitis?

alcoholism, choledocholithiasis, post endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, trauma

61

Clinical findings suggesting acute pancreatitis?

abdominal and back pain, elevated serum amylase and lipase

62

Describe the pancreas with chronic pancreatitis?

small, heterogenous, poorly marginated

63

Clinical findings of chronic pancreatitis

asymptomatic, persistent epigastric pain, jaundice, back pain, possible elevation in amylase or lipase

64

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma AKA

pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

65

A pancreatic cystadenoma with be one of what two things?

microcystic (serous) or macrocystic (mucinous)

66

Clinical findings of pancreatic adenocarcinoma?

-elevated amylase and/or lipase
-loss of appetite
-weight loss
-jaundice
-Courvoisier GB
-epigastric pain
-loss of appetite

67

What kind of islet cell tumor is most common?

insulinomas

68

Sonographic findings of islet cell tumors:

-hypoechoic mass that may contain calcifications
-visualization is hard because of their small size

69

All of the following are part of the exocrine function of the pancreas except for the:
A. production of lipase
B. production of glucagon
C production of amylase
D. production of sodium bicarb

B. production of glucagon

70

What is associated with the development of cysts within the pancreas?

Von-Hippel-Lindau disease

71

The most common form of malignancy in the pancreas is

adenocarcinoma

72

The most common location of focal pancreatitis is within the

head of pancreas

73

All of the following are sonographic findings of chronic pancreatitis except:
A. dilated pancreatic duct
B. calcificatinos within the pancreas
C. pancreatic pseudocyst
D. diffusely hypoechoic pancreas

D.diffusely hypoechoic pancreas

74

All of the following are classic clinical features of acute pancreatitis except:
A.Leukocytosis
B. back pain
C. weight gain
D. fever

C. weight gain

75

What lab value appears to be most specific for acute pancreatitis

lipase

76

One of the most common locations for a pancreatic pseudocyst is within the

lesser sac

77

A gastrinoma of the pancreas can produce what?

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

78

The muscle that controls the emptying of bile and pancreatic juices into the duodenum

Sphincter of Oddi

79

What is the name for the main pancreatic duct?

duct of Wirsung

80

The most common echogenicity of an acutely inflamed pancreas is

hypoechoic

81

What is the early sonographic appearance of acute pancreatitis?

calcifications within the gland

82

Mucinous cystadenocarcinomas of the pancreas are most often located within which parts of the pancreas

head and neck

83

What is the hormone released by the pancreas that encourages the body's use of glucagon?

insulin