Thyroid Patho Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Thyroid Patho Deck (43):
1

What are benign pathologies of the thyroid? (6)

-cysts
-adenomas
-goiters
-hyperthyroidism
-hypothyroidism
-thyroiditis

2

T/F: simple cysts of the thyroid are rare?

T

3

Describe most thyroid cysts

complex with irregularly shaped walls and internal echoes caused by hemorrhage

4

Hemorrhagic cysts result from

trauma or from degeneration of an adenoma

5

What may be seen in hemorrhagic cysts?

debris or fluid

6

Describe thyroglossal duct cysts

-constitute 70% of all congenital neck anomalies
-positioned midline anterior to the trachea

7

What is the thyroglossal duct?

embryologic remnant of the thyroid diverticulum

8

What is the most common thyroid mass?

adenoma

9

What percent of all palpable thyroid nodules are adenomas?

85%

10

Son findings of adenoma

-variable in size
-usually numerous (unlike carcinomas)
-any echogenicity
-may have hyperechoic halo around it due to the fibrous tissue encapsulating it
-may be loculated, single or multiple if seen with cystic degeneration (some are complex, some simple)

11

What is a goiter?

enlargement of thyroid gland, AKA multinodular goiter
-develop over a long period of time and are usually asymptomatic tho hypothyroidism may develop at later stages

12

T/F: Cystic degeneration of goiters is uncommon

False...may be referred to as multinodular cystic goiter

13

Classifications of goiters:

-nontoxic (simple)
-toxic (diffuse)

14

Describe nontoxic (simple) goiters:

-associated with hypothyroidism
-smooth and homogenous but diffusely enlarged

15

Describe toxic (diffuse) goiters:

-diffuse enlargement of the gland
-decrease in echogenicity
-increased vascularity referred to as a thyroid inferno
-associated with grave's disease

16

What is Grave's disease?

a complex autoimmune disease

17

Describe hyperthyroidism?

-occurs when overactivity in the thyroid gland causes a metabolic imbalance
-gland produces too much T3 and T4 causing the body's chemical reactions to speed up

18

What is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism?

Grave's disease (an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the thyroid causing it to enlarge diffusely as a result of a toxic goiter

19

Hyperthyroidism affects who?

women more than men, typically 30-40 years of age

20

Clinical symptoms of hyperthyroidism: (12)

-fatigue
-weightloss
-trembling hands
-increase in appetitie
-intolerant to heat
-increase in sweating
-increase in bowel movements
-protruding eyeballs(exophthalmia)
-rash on front of legs
-staring gaze
-fast HR
-light menstrual period

21

Describe hypothyroidism?

-occurs when the gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone
-causes chemical reactions in the body to slow down
-associated with nontoxic goiter (causes visible swelling of one or both lobes)

22

WHat may cause hypothyroidism?

an iron deficiency

23

Clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism? (13)

-fatigue
-weight gain
-difficulty losing weight
-constipation
-dry and brittle hair
-hair loss
-flaky skin
-heavy menstrual periods
-intolerance to cold
-decreased sexual interest
-hoarse scratchy throat
-facial edema
-slow HR

24

What is thyroiditis?

-inflammation of thyroid

25

Who does thyroiditis affect?

women 30-50 years of age

26

Symptoms of thyroiditis?

enlarged, tender thyroid
fever

27

Son findings of thyroiditis

-nodular
-irregular
-developing abscess

28

What is the most common cause of thyroiditis?

Hashimoto's disease

29

What is Hashimotos's disease?

disorder of the immune system believed to be caused by lymph system destroying the gland

30

What characterizes Hashimoto's disease?

-painless, diffuse enlargement of the thryoid gland
-asymptomatic
-young to middle aged women

31

Son findings of thyroiditis:

-heterogeneous
-generallly more hypoechoic than normal thyroid

32

When does thyroid cancer occur?

when abnormal cells multiply rapidly

33

T/F: a biopsy must be performed to diagnose thryoid cancer?

True

34

Son findings of thyroid cancer:

-may be cystic or solid or complex
-vary in size
-may be single or multiple (usually they are single)

35

Clinical symptoms of thyroid cancer?

-difficulty swallowing
-difficutly breathing
-painless palpable neck mass

36

Son findings of malignancy of thyroid cancer?

-jagged irregular borders
-poorly marginated
-hypoechoic lesions
-calcifications

37

Treatment of thyroid cancer:

-surgical removal of part or all of the gland
-chemotherapy for metastasis

38

4 types of thyroid cancer?

-papillary
-follicular
-medulary
-anaplastic

39

What is the most common form of thyroid cancer?

papillary: slow growing, successful treatment

40

Describe follicular thyroid cancer:

-slow growing
-good cure rate
-can be difficult to control if it invades blood vessels, lymph nodes or other neck tissues

41

Describe medullary thyroid cancer:

-difficult to control due to its tendency to metastasize
-may be inherited

42

Describe anaplastic thyroid cancer:

-rare
-fast growing
-metastasizes readily
-poor prognosis
-death occurs within months of dx

43

Most common primary orga
ns for metastatic disease of the thyroid:

-renal cell carcinoma
-breast
-lung
-melanoma
-recurrent thyroid