Flashcards in Thyroid Patho Deck (43):
What are benign pathologies of the thyroid? (6)
T/F: simple cysts of the thyroid are rare?
Describe most thyroid cysts
complex with irregularly shaped walls and internal echoes caused by hemorrhage
Hemorrhagic cysts result from
trauma or from degeneration of an adenoma
What may be seen in hemorrhagic cysts?
debris or fluid
Describe thyroglossal duct cysts
-constitute 70% of all congenital neck anomalies
-positioned midline anterior to the trachea
What is the thyroglossal duct?
embryologic remnant of the thyroid diverticulum
What is the most common thyroid mass?
What percent of all palpable thyroid nodules are adenomas?
Son findings of adenoma
-variable in size
-usually numerous (unlike carcinomas)
-may have hyperechoic halo around it due to the fibrous tissue encapsulating it
-may be loculated, single or multiple if seen with cystic degeneration (some are complex, some simple)
What is a goiter?
enlargement of thyroid gland, AKA multinodular goiter
-develop over a long period of time and are usually asymptomatic tho hypothyroidism may develop at later stages
T/F: Cystic degeneration of goiters is uncommon
False...may be referred to as multinodular cystic goiter
Classifications of goiters:
Describe nontoxic (simple) goiters:
-associated with hypothyroidism
-smooth and homogenous but diffusely enlarged
Describe toxic (diffuse) goiters:
-diffuse enlargement of the gland
-decrease in echogenicity
-increased vascularity referred to as a thyroid inferno
-associated with grave's disease
What is Grave's disease?
a complex autoimmune disease
-occurs when overactivity in the thyroid gland causes a metabolic imbalance
-gland produces too much T3 and T4 causing the body's chemical reactions to speed up
What is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism?
Grave's disease (an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the thyroid causing it to enlarge diffusely as a result of a toxic goiter
Hyperthyroidism affects who?
women more than men, typically 30-40 years of age
Clinical symptoms of hyperthyroidism: (12)
-increase in appetitie
-intolerant to heat
-increase in sweating
-increase in bowel movements
-rash on front of legs
-light menstrual period
-occurs when the gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone
-causes chemical reactions in the body to slow down
-associated with nontoxic goiter (causes visible swelling of one or both lobes)
WHat may cause hypothyroidism?
an iron deficiency
Clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism? (13)
-difficulty losing weight
-dry and brittle hair
-heavy menstrual periods
-intolerance to cold
-decreased sexual interest
-hoarse scratchy throat
What is thyroiditis?
-inflammation of thyroid
Who does thyroiditis affect?
women 30-50 years of age
Symptoms of thyroiditis?
enlarged, tender thyroid
Son findings of thyroiditis
What is the most common cause of thyroiditis?
What is Hashimotos's disease?
disorder of the immune system believed to be caused by lymph system destroying the gland
What characterizes Hashimoto's disease?
-painless, diffuse enlargement of the thryoid gland
-young to middle aged women
Son findings of thyroiditis:
-generallly more hypoechoic than normal thyroid
When does thyroid cancer occur?
when abnormal cells multiply rapidly
T/F: a biopsy must be performed to diagnose thryoid cancer?
Son findings of thyroid cancer:
-may be cystic or solid or complex
-vary in size
-may be single or multiple (usually they are single)
Clinical symptoms of thyroid cancer?
-painless palpable neck mass
Son findings of malignancy of thyroid cancer?
-jagged irregular borders
Treatment of thyroid cancer:
-surgical removal of part or all of the gland
-chemotherapy for metastasis
4 types of thyroid cancer?
What is the most common form of thyroid cancer?
papillary: slow growing, successful treatment
Describe follicular thyroid cancer:
-good cure rate
-can be difficult to control if it invades blood vessels, lymph nodes or other neck tissues
Describe medullary thyroid cancer:
-difficult to control due to its tendency to metastasize
-may be inherited
Describe anaplastic thyroid cancer:
-death occurs within months of dx