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Flashcards in abdominalpathology final Deck (80):
1

Which of the following is a symptom of acute pancreatitis?
A. fatigue
B. weightloss
C. abdominal pain
D. weight gain

C. Abdominal pain

2

what is the most common neoplasm of the pancreas?

adenocarcinoma

3

what is the most common splenic pathology

splenomegaly

4

what is a symptom of splenic infarct?
A. nausea
B. acute pain
C. fatigue
D. dull ache

B acute pain

5

you are scanning a 52 year old male with a history of alcohol abuse. Ultrasound findings include a hyperechoic mass in the head of the pancreas, dilaition of the pancreatic and common bile duct, diffuse calcification withing the pancreas. what is the most likely condition

chronic pancreatitis

6

you have a patient who is scheduled for a pancreatic surgery following ultrasound and CT evaluation. What is the surgical procedure of choice for the pancreatic cancer?

Whipple procedure

7

which of the following is a risk factor for the development of pancreatic cancer?
A. smoking
B. diabetes
C. chronic diabetes
D. all of the above

D. all of the above

8

you have been asked to rule out pseudocyst formation in a patient with acute pancreatitis. What is the ultrasound appearance of a pancreatic pseudocyst?

either isoechoic or hyperechoic compared to liver

9

the posterior border of the body and tail of the pancreas is the ?

splenic vein

10

what is an early sonographic appearance of acute pancreatitis?

Normal

11

An african american male present to the u/s department for RUQ ultrasound for pain. He has a history of smoking and diabetes. What is the best diagnosis?

adenocarcinoma

12

Evaluation of the pancreas is a technical challenge to the sonographer due to?

its retroperitoneal location and posterior position to the stomach

13

The most common location of adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is withing the?

head

14

what is the most common cause of acute pancreatitis?

obstruction of the pancreatic duct by biliary calculi

15

A 25 year old female patient presents to the ultrasound department for a complete abdominal ultrasound. She complains of RLQ pain and nausea. The RUQ abdomen appears normal. A small mass is noted in the area of the splenic hilum. This mass appears isechoic to the spleen. What does this most likely represent?

accessory spleen

16

You are performing an ultrasound study on a patient iwht malignant melanoma. Your ultrasound finding reveal multiple hyperechoic masses withing the spleen. this most likely represents?

metastasis

17

the normal adult spleen measures?

8-13 cm

18

a 14 year old male patient presents to the ultrasound department after falling from his bicycle. An abdominal ultrasound reveals a complex appearing mass withing the spleen. this most likely represents?

splenic hematoma

19

a 35 year old male patient presents to the ultrasound department for an abdominal ultrasound with a history of abdominal pain and histoplasmosis. What are you more likely to identify within the spleen?

hydatid cyst

20

An area within the spleen that has become necrotic because of a lack of oxygen is referred to as?

splenic infarct

21

a 48 year old male patient with a history of severe, sudden onset of left upper quadrant pain without trauma present to the ultrasound department for a sonogram of the spleen. You visualize a wedge shaped, hypoechoic area within the spleen. This represents?

splenic infarct

22

what is the most common cause of scrotal pain in adults?

epididymo-orchitis

23

what is the most common cause for scrotal pain in adolescents?

torsion

24

what are the sonographic findings in the early stages of testicular torsion?

inhomogeneous appearance

25

T of F
ultrasound can reliably differentiate between a spermatocele and an epididymal cyst?

False

26

What prostate zone is most commonly associated with cancer and prostatitis?

peripheral zone

27

Enlargement of the prostate in older men is most often caused by

benign prostatic hypertrophy

28

A large complex hydrocele is most commonly associated with which of the following?

Orchitis

29

A common cyst most often seen in the head of the epididymis that contains nonviable sperm is the ?

spermatocele

30

A linear stripe of variable thickness and echogenicity running through the testicle in a craniocaudal direction represents the ?

mediastinum testis

31

What diagnostic information can an ultrasound of the scrotum provide?

intratesticular vs extratesticular mass

32

A 7 year old boy presents to the emergency department with acute testicular pain localized tot he superior pole of his right testis. What is the most likely diagnosis?

torsion of the testicular appendage

33

50 year old male present for an ultrasound of the kidneys and bladder for difficult urination. Give the best diagnosis?

Benign prostatic hypertropy

34

clinical findings of acute scrotal pain and swelling are suggestive of:
A. orchitis
B. neoplasm
C. torsion
D. epididymitis

C. torison

35

what is the most common thyroid mass?

adenoma

36

Name three clinical symptoms of hyperthyroidism

1. weightloss
2. fatigue
3. intolerent to heat

37

List three clinical syptoms of hypothyroidism

1. brittle hair
2. low sexual drive
3. flaky skin

38

How is thyroid cancer diagnoised?

Biopsy

39

The differential diagnosis for thyroidism includes all the following except:
A. Goiter
B. hemorrhagic cyst
C. abscess
D. multinodular goiter

B. hemorrhagic cyst

40

Which abnormality is associated witht he sonographic findings of a thyroid inferno?

Graves disease

41

A 35 year old female presents for a thyroid ultrasound. Her symptoms include fatigue, weightloss, intolerance to heat, and exophthalmia. What is the most likely diagnosis?

hyperthyroidism

42

What is the most common cause of hypothyroidism?

Hashimoto thyroiditis

43

The most common feature of a thyroid adenoma is?

Peripheral sonolucent halo

44

A patient with clinical hyperthyroidism is referred for sonogram evaluation of an enlarged thyroid. The sonogram reveals a diffusely hypoechoic thyroid texture and lobulated contour. No discreet nodules are seen, but color-flow doppler in the thyroid reveals dramatic flow in both systole and diastole. These findings are suggestive of?

Graves disease

45

Which of the following is not a sonographic applications for the thyroid gland?

to determine malignancy

46

Which of the following is not an indication for a renal ultrasound?
A. hypertension
B. palpable abdominal mass
C. hematuria
D. flank pain

B. palpable abdominal mass

47

What is the most common benign renal tumor?

adenoma

48

_________ is the appearance of red blood cells in the urine.

hematuria

49

If scanning a patient with hydeonephrosis and an extremely full bladder what should the sonographer do?

have them void and rescan

50

What it the usual cause of renal infarction?

renal artery obstruction

51

Where is the kidney placed for a renal transplant?

RLQ

52

What is the post-op complication of renal transplant surgery usually occuring in the first two weeks caused by an anastimosis leak?

Urinoma

53

25 year old patient with right flank pain, nausea, and vomitin is seen for a renal ultrasound. The ultrasound reveals large echogenic foci with posterior acoustic shadowing in the kidney. The calyces appear to be dilated. What is the most likely diagnosis?

calculi

54

Which malignant tumor is most common in children aged 2-5?

Wilm's tumor

55

What anomaly is a deposition of a moderate amount of fat in the renal sinus which causes the appearance of enlarged sinus with increased echogenicity?

sinus lipomatosis

56

The normal adult kidney should measure?

9-12 cm

57

What is the sonographic appearance of ureteopelvic junction obstruction?

pelvicaliectasis to the level of the junction of the renal pelvis and ureter

58

A triangular echogenic area in the upper pole of the renal parenchyma describes what normal variant?

junctional parenchymal defect

59

you are scanning a 69 year old male with hematuria. Your ultrasound finding ihnclude right-sided hydronephrosis and a mass within the urinary bladder. Which of the following tumors most commonly occurs within the urinary bladder?

transitional cell carcinoma

60

You have detected compensatory hypertrophy of the right kidney in a 35 year old male. This finding is associated with which of the following?
A. renal agensis
B. nephrectomy
C. renal hypoplasia
D. all of the above

D. all of the above

61

In which sonographic image do you measure the longest dimension of the kidney?

longitudinal mid kidney

62

Which of the following is not considered an extrinsic cause of hydronephrosis?
A. ureteral stricture
B. pregnancy
C. uterine leiomyoma
D. neurogenic bladder

A. ureteral stricture

63

All of the folllowing are clinical finding of acute renal failure except:
A. oliguria
B. hematuria
C. decreased BUN and creatinine
D. hypertension

C. decreased BUN and creatinine

64

A 32 year old patient with severe left flank pain and hematuria is seen for a renal ultrasound. The ultrasound reveals a dilated ureter, and no ureteral jet is seen on the left side. The right kidney appears normal, and the left renal collecting system is dilated. This is most consistent with:

ureteral stone

65

What is the cause of adrenal hemorrhage in the neonate?

trauma during birth

66

What is a highly malignant tumor of the adrenal gland occuring in children?

neuroblastoma

67

The most common sonographic appearance of a pheochromocytoma is a/an:

hyperechoic mass

68

Upon sonographic examination of the right upper quadrant in a 32 year old female patient complaining of generalized abdominal pain, you visualize an anechoic mass with posterior enhancement superior and medial upper pole of the right kidney. This most likely represents a/an:

adrenal cyst

69

Which of the following hormones are responsible for the "flight-or-fight" response?

epinephrine and norepinephrine

70

Which of the following is a normal resistive index in a normal adult kidney?

.69

71

The syndrome associated with hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity, and an adrenal mass is:

cushing syndrome

72

The adrenal mass often associated with uncontrollable hypertension, tachycardia, and tremors is the:

pheochromocytoma

73

All of the following are true statements about the adrenal glands except:

A. the right adrenal gland is located medial to the right lobe of the liver

B. the adrenal glands play an important role in blood pressure regulation

C. the adrenal glands are easily identifed in the fetus


D. the left adrenal gland is located lateral to the upper pole of the left kidney

D

74

The adrenal gland cortex produces all of the following except:

adreanaline

75

During routine surveillance of hte urinary bladder, you detect the presence of periodic ureteral "jets." This is a sign of:

normality

76

Which of the following describes the normal course of the left renal vein?

between the superior mesenteric aretery and the aorta

77

What is the indication for a Doppler renal study to rule out renal artery stenosis?

uncontrolled hypertension

78

A horseshoe kidney is fused at:

lower poles

79

A renal ultrasound had been ordered on 26 year old pregnant female that presents with urinary urgency. Sonographically her distended bladder wall measures 6mm and has a polypoid appearance. What is the best diagnosis?

cystitis

80

How are cross-fused kidneys joined?

Upper pole of the ectopic kidney to the lower pole of the normal placed kidney