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Flashcards in Musculoskeletal Deck (36):
1

Attachments that are cord-like or flat sheets

aponeuroses

2

4 types of feather-like muscle patterns that run oblique to the long axis of the muscle

unipennate
bipennate
mulitpennate
circumpennate

3

A deltoid muscle is an example of a _______ muscle

unipennate

4

The gastrocnemius muscle in the calf is a ______ muscle in which the fibers have a central origin

bipennate

5

The large, flat muscles of the external oblique or the trapezius attach with a large flat ______

aponeurosis

6

A collection of tough collagenous fibers that attach the muscle at the proximal and distal portions is a ______

tendon

7

Aponeurosis attachments occur in what muscles?

flat muscles, such as rectus abdominis

8

Why do tendons heal slowly?

lack of vascularity

9

What is a synovial sheath?

tubular sac surrounding a tendon

10

Tendons occur with or without a _______

synovial sheath

11

Synovial sheaths are found in what 4 areas of the body?

shoulder
hand
wrist
ankle

12

Short bands of tough fibers that connect bones to other bones

ligaments

13

Ligaments are especially important in what 3 areas of the body?

knees
ankles
shoulders

14

What is the sac-like structure surrounding joints and tendons that contains synovial fluid?

bursa

15

What is the purpose of synovial fluid?

decrease friction between tendon and bone or bone and ligament

16

The knee joint has ____ number of bursa

9

17

What is the modality of choice when imaging MS problems?

MRI

18

The biceps tendon is a sheath covered tendon that appears sonographically as

hypoechoic halo surrounding the tendon that measures a couple millimeters

19

Acute disease may reveal a sheath that is ______

thicker than the tendon

20

Areas of __________ in the hand, wrist and ankle contain tendons with sheaths

high stress

21

What fills the fascial compartment of a tendon lacking a synovial sheath?

paratenon, a loose areolar connective tissue

22

The joining of the tendon to the bone is _____

enthesis

23

The enthesis is approximately ____ long and images longitudinally as a ______, _______ area in the distal tendon

1 cm
triangular, hypoechoic

24

Ligaments require a transducer of ____MHz or higher

10

25

Ligaments are only imaged in the ______ view

longitudinal

26

Many ligaments in the large joints image hyperechoic except for the ______ ligament which appears hypoechoic

cruciate (knee)

27

Usually the ligament measures __ to __ mm thick and is _____ in echogenicity

2-3
hypoechoic

28

What is anisotropy?

occurs when sound beam misses transducer on return because of the curve of the structure

29

What has the most pronounced anisotropy?

tendons

30

What maneuver should be performed to correct anisotropy?

heel-toe rocking to create the optimal 90 degree angle

31

The bending of transmitted sound to an oblique path is ______

edge artifact or refractile shadowing

32

Refractile shadowing appears as a ______ band _____ to the structure

hypoechoic
posterior

33

A cause of refractile shadowing is tissue impedance mismatch and is most often seen with

complete tendon tear

34

The time of flight artifact occurs most often when imaging _____ patients at the ______ interface

obese
muscle-fat

35

The time of flight artifact displaces the image in the _____ plane

anteroposterior (axial)

36

The time of flight artifact occurs when the returning sound wave passes through?

2 tissues with markedly different speeds