Flashcards in Calcium Homeostasis Deck (4)
Non-PTH mediated hypercalcemia
Malignancy - the most common cause of non-PTH-mediated hypercalcaemia.
Granulomatous conditions - eg, sarcoidosis and tuberculosis.
Endocrine conditions - eg, thyrotoxicosis, phaeochromocytoma and primary adrenal insufficiency.
Drugs - eg, thiazide diuretics, vitamin D and vitamin A supplements.
Familial - eg, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia
High turnover: bedridden, thyrotoxic
Diagnosis of Primary Hyperparathyroidism
Raised serum calcium
Raised serum PTH (or inappropriately normal)
Increased urine calcium excretion
Signs and symptoms of hypocalcemia
Neuromuscular symptoms include the following:
Numbness and tingling sensations in the perioral area or in the fingers and toes
Muscle cramps, particularly in the back and lower extremities; may progress to carpopedal spasm (ie, tetany)
Wheezing; may develop from bronchospasm
Voice changes (due to laryngospasm)
Neurologic symptoms of hypocalcemia include the following:
Irritability, impaired intellectual capacity, depression, and personality changes
Seizures (eg, grand mal, petit mal, focal)
Other uncontrolled movements
Chronic hypocalcemia may produce the following dermatologic manifestations: