Pituitary and Adrenal Gland Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pituitary and Adrenal Gland Deck (24):
1

Describe the tissue of the posterior pituitary gland

It is an extension of neural tissue consisting of modified glial cells and axonal processes

2

What do somatotrophs secrete?

Growth hormone

3

What do mammotrophs secrete?

Prolactin

4

Name 3 types of basophil and what they produce

Corticotrophs (ACTH)
Thyrotrophs (TSH)
Gonadotrophs (FSH/LH)

5

What do corticotrophs produce?

ACTH

6

What do thyrotrophs produce?

TSH

7

What do gonadotrophs produce?

FSH/LH

8

Which part of the thyroid gland contains non-myelinated axons of neurosecretory neurons?

Posterior gland of the pituitary

9

Sheehan's syndrome?

Hypopituitarism caused by ischemic necrosis due to blood loss and hypovolemic shock during and after childbirth

10

What could a tumour extending into the sella cause?

Hypopituitarism

11

Inflammatory conditions (e.g. sarcoid) and the pituitary gland?

Could cause hypothyroidism
Surgery/radiation
Sudden Haemorrhage into gland
Ischaemic necrosis
Sheehan Syndrome
Tumours extending into sella
Inflammatory conditions (Sarcoidosis)

12

Which gland does SIADH affect?

Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion affects the posterior pituitary (lel, posterior is in charge of ADH secretion so thats obvious lol)

13

MEN1

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (Werner syndrome)

14

Addison's Disease Typical Presentation

Malaise, tiredness, poor appetite, weight loss
CRAVING FOR SALTY FOOD
Dizzy spells
Low BP, postural hypotension
PIGMENTATION

15

Most common cause of Addison's disease?

Autoimmunity

16

Symptoms specific to women in addisons?

Loss of body hair and periods may stop

17

What other disease may be associated with Addison's disease?

Type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroid disease, pernicious anemia

18

Why might patients with addisons become hypoglycaemic?

Steroids make you more insulin resistant, in addisons you aren't producing sufficient steroids and so you become more insulin sensitive

19

Diagnosis of Adrenal Insufficiency

Suspicious Biochemistry:
-Low sodium, high potassium, hypoglycaemia
-Short Synachten Test (>250, >480)
-ACTH levels will be high
-Renin will be massively increased, Aldosterone will be decreased
-Adrenal autoantibodies

20

Most common type of pituitary adenoma?

Prolactinoma

21

Symptoms of prolactinoma?

Infertility, lack of libido, amenorrhoea

22

What causes levels of insulin like growth factors to rise?

Growth hormone

23

Symptoms of a growth hormone secreting functional adenoma?

Growth of bone, cartilage and connective tissue
Gigantism or acromegaly

24

Symptoms of Pituitary Apoplexy (apoplexy is bleeding within organs)

This is a surgical emergency! Headache, diploploia (pressure on CNIII), hypopituitarism, cardiovascular collapse and loss of consciousness