Cardiac anatomy, USMLE Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardiac anatomy, USMLE Deck (48):
1

Gives rise to: ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk

Truncus arteriosus

2

Gives rise to: smooth parts (outflow tract) of right and left ventricles

Bulbus cordis

3

Gives rise to: trabeculated left and right ventricles

Primitive ventricle

4

Gives rise to: trabeculated right and left atria

Primitive atria

5

Gives rise to: Coronary sinus

Left horn of sinus venosus

6

Gives rise to: Smooth part of right atrium

Right horn of sinus venosus

7

Failure of truncal and pulmonary ridges to spiral gives rise to

Transposition of great vessels

8

Skewed aorticopulmonary septum gives rise to

Tetralogy of Fallot

9

Partial aorticopulmonary septum development gives rise to

Persistent truncus arteriosus

10

Components of TOF

PROVe
1) Pulmonary stenosis
2) Right ventricular hypertrophy (boot-shape)
3) Overriding of aorta
4) VSD

11

Aorticopulmonary septum fuses with muscular ventricular septum to form

Membranous interventricular septum

12

Endocardial cushion contributes to (3)

1) Atrial separation
2) Membranous interventricular septum
3) Separation of atria from ventricles

13

Foramen secundum is seen in

Septum primum

14

Foramen ovale is seen in

Septum secundum

15

Forms the valve of foramen ovale

Septum primum

16

Foramen ovale closes at birth due to

Increased LA pressure

17

Patent foramen ovale is caused by

Failure of septum primum and septum secundum to fuse at birth

18

Order of sources of fetal erythropoiesis

Young Liver Synthesizes Blood
1) Yolk sac
2) Liver
3) Spleen
4) Bone marrow

19

Start of erythropoiesis

3 weeks AOG

20

Start of BM erythropoiesis

22 weeks AOG

21

3 shunts of the fetal circulation

1) Ductus venosus
2) Foramen ovale
3) Ductus arteriosus

22

pO2 of blood in umbilical vein

~30 mmHg

23

O2 sat of blood in umbilical vein

~80%

24

Pulmonary vascular resistance at birth

Decrease

25

Causes closure of foramen ovale at birth

Left atrial pressure > right atrial pressure

26

Causes closure of ductus arteriosus at birth

Increase in O2 leads to decrease in prostaglandins

27

Drug that helps close PDA

Indomethacin

28

Substances that keep PDA open (2)

1) PGE1
2) PGE2

29

Fetal-postnatal derivative: Umbilical vein

Ligamentum teres hepatis

30

Fetal-postnatal derivative: UmbilicaL artery

MediaL umbilical ligament

31

Fetal-postnatal derivative: Ductus arteriosus

Ligamentum arteriosum

32

Fetal-postnatal derivative: Ductus venosus

Ligamentum venosum

33

Fetal-postnatal derivative: Foramen ovale

Fossa ovalis

34

Fetal-postnatal derivative: AllaNtois

Urachus-mediaN umbilical ligament

35

Notochord

Nucleus pulposus of intervertebral disc

36

Major blood vessels of the heart

1) RCA
2) Acute marginal
3) PD/interventricular
4) Left main coronary
5) Left LAD
6) LCX
7) Left marginal

37

Blood vessel that supplies SA and AV nodes

RCA

38

Determines right-dominance or left-dominance

Origin of PD

39

Origin of PD: Right-dominant circulation

RCA

40

Origin of PD: Left-dominant circulation

LCX

41

%: Right-dominant circulation

85

42

%: Left-dominant circulation

8

43

%: Codominant

7

44

Most common site of coronary artery occlusion

LAD

45

Phase of cardiac cycle where coronary arteries fill

Diastole

46

Most posterior part of the heart

Left atrium

47

LA enlargement can cause (2)

1) Dysphagia (esophagus)
2) Hoarseness (left recurrent laryngeal nerve)

48

Uses of transesophageal echo (3)

Diagnosis of
1) Left atrial enlargement
2) Aortic dissection
3) Thoracic aortic aneurysm