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Flashcards in Renal Deck (90):
1

Arrangement of vessels in the renal sinus from anterior to posterior

1) Renal vein
2) Renal artery
3) Renal pelvis

2

The kidneys are in close contact posteriorly with what muscle

Psoas major

3

Superior pole of the left kidney is at the level of

11th rib

4

Hilum of the left kidney is at the level of

L1

5

Hilum of the right kidney is at the level of

L1-2

6

4 muscles related posteriorly to both kidneys

1) Diaphragm superiorly
2) Transversus abdominis inferolaterlly
3) Quadratus lumborum inferomedially
4) Psoas muscles inferomedially

7

Anterior to the right kidney are (2)

Duodenum and liver

8

Anterior to the left kidney are (3)

Stomach, pancreas, and spleen

9

Anterior to both kidneys are

Adrenal gland and colon

10

Coverings of the kidneys from the innermost to the outermost

1) Renal capsule/True capsule/Fibrous capsule
2) Perirenal fat
3) Gerota's fascia/Renal fascia/Areolar fascia
4) Pararenal fat

11

Renal cortex extends into the medulla between the pyramids to from

Renal columns

12

# of renal pyramids per kidney

12/10-18

13

Apex of the renal medulla

Renal papilla

14

The renal pelvis is divided into

2 major calyces

15

1 renal calyx is divided into

2-3 minor calyces

16

Each minor calyx is indented by

Renal papilla

17

Lymph from the kidney drains into

Lateral aortic nodes

18

Nerve supply to the kidneys

Renal sympathetic plexus

19

Preaortic nodes refer to

Celiac, super mesenteric, and inferior mesenteric nodes

20

Lateral/paraaortic/lumbar nodes refer to

Drainage of the kidneys and adrenal glands

21

Transplanted kidneys are placed on

Iliac fossa in front of the iliac us muscle

22

Renal transplant: Incision

Anterior abdominal wall directly above the inguinal ligament

23

Renal transplant: Approach to reach the iliac fossa

Retroperitoneal

24

Renal transplant: Renal artery is anastomosed to

Internal iliac artery

25

Renal transplant: Renal vein is anastomosed to

External iliac vein

26

Renal transplant: Ureters is attached to bladder via

Ureterocystostomy

27

The Gerota's fascia is deficient at which end, allowing spread of pyelonephritis beyond the boundaries of the kidney

Inferior

28

What vein/s drain into the left renal vein

1) Left gonadal vein
2) Left adrenal vein

29

T/F Majority of kidney stones are seen on x-ray

T

30

Radioluscent kidney stones

1) Uric acid
2) Indinavir

31

Indinavir is a drug that slows the progress of what infection

HIV

32

Varicocele is dilation of what plexus

Pampiniform

33

Most common fusion anomaly of the kidney

Horseshoe kidney

34

Complication of hors hoe kidney

Kinking of ureter > stasis

35

Suprapubic aspiration is done via what space

Retropubic space of Retzius

36

Syndrome: Left renal vein entrapment between SMA and aorta causing varicocele

Nutcracker syndrome

37

The ureters insert into the bladder at what area

Superolateral angle

38

The ureter enters the pelvis crossing in front of the

Bifurcation of the common iliac arteries

39

Ureters: Run down the pelvis at which walls

Lateral

40

Ureters: Crossed by what structure in males

Vas deferens

41

Ureters: Crossed by what structure in females

Uterine arteries

42

Ureters: Beneath the uterine arteries, lateral vs medial

Medial

43

Ureters: Beneath the uterine arteries, within what ligament

Broad

44

Ureters: Muscle related posteriorly

Psoas

45

Ureters: At surgical risk at which pelvic sites

1) Within the suspensory ligament, medial to the ovarian vessels
2) Inferior to the uterine vessels
3) Adjacent to the transverse cervical ligament lateral to the uterine cervix

46

Ureters: Blood supply, superior

Renal artery

47

Ureters: Blood supply, middle

Gonadal artery

48

Ureters: Blood supply, inferior

Superior vesical

49

Ureters: Total length within the abdominal wall

1/2

50

Ureters: Total length within the pelvis

1/2

51

Ureters: Nerve supply

1) Renal plexus
2) Testicular/ovarian plexus
3) Hypogastric plexus

52

Renal colic is referred over

T11-L2 dermatomes, from the back above the iliac crest through the inguinal region into the scrotum or labia majora

53

Urinary bladder: Rests on

Pelvic floor

54

Urinary bladder: Base, in males (3)

1) Seminal vesicles
2) Vas deferens
3) separated from rectum by Denonvilier fascia

55

Urinary bladder: Superior surface, in males (2)

1) Sigmoid colon
2) Rectum

56

Urinary bladder: Inferolateral surface

Retropubic space of Retzius

57

Urinary bladder: Base, in females

1) Cervix
2) Upper vagina

58

Urinary bladder: Superior surface

Uterus

59

Urinary bladder: Apex is connected to

Median umbilical ligament (urachus)

60

Urinary bladder: Within the neck

Internal urethral orifice

61

Urinary bladder: Maximum capacity

500 mL

62

Urinary bladder: Shape when empty

Pyramidal

63

Urinary bladder: Shape of base

Triangular

64

Urinary bladder: Neck is held in position by

Puboprostatic (males)/pubovesical ligament (females)

65

Urinary bladder: True ligaments

1) Median and lateral pubovesical
2) Rectovesical

66

Urinary bladder: False ligaments

1) Median umbilical
2) Medial umbilical

67

Urinary bladder: Smooth muscle

Detrussor

68

Urinary bladder: Detrussor muscle has how many layers

3

69

T/F Bladder can expand significantly without increasing internal pressure

T

70

Urinary bladder: Arterial supply

1) Superior vesicle from anterior trunk of hypogastric artery
2) Inferior vesicle from anterior trunk of hypogastric artery

71

Urinary bladder: Venous drainage

Vesical plexus from internal iliac vein

72

Urinary bladder: Sympathetic supply

Hypogastric plexus from upper lumbar nerves

73

Urinary bladder: Parasympathetic supply

Pelvic splanchnic from S2,3,4

74

Mesonephric tubules give rise to

Ductus efferentes

75

Mesonephric ducts give rise to (4)

1) Ductus epidydimis
2) Ductus deferens
3) Seminal vessicle
4) Ejaculatory duct

76

Mesonephric duct is aka

Wolffian duct

77

T/F Nephrogenesis only occurs during birth

T

78

T/F Nephron maturation continues postnatally

T

79

Origin of urinary bladder

Vesical part of urogenital sinus

80

Cloaca is divided by the urorectal septum to from

1) Rectum dorsally
2) Urogenital sinus ventrally

81

The urogenital sinus is divided into 3 parts

1) Cranial/vesical
2) Middle/pelvic
3) Caudal/phallic

82

Urogenital sinus: Cranial part gives rise to

Urinary bladder

83

Urogenital sinus: Middle part gives rise to

Entire urethra of females and except the penile urethra in males

84

Urogenital sinus: Caudal part gives rise to

Genital tubercle

85

Urethra, length: Male

20 cm

86

Urethra, length: Female

3.8 cm

87

Urethra, length: Prostatic

3 cm

88

Urethra, length: Membranous

1.25 cm

89

Urethra, length: Penile

15.75 cm

90

Right renal artery crosses where in relation to the IVC

Posterior