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Flashcards in Lower Extremity, Topnotch Deck (134):
1

Innervation to the anterior thigh muscles

Femoral nerve

2

Quadriceps muscles (4)

1) Vastus lateralis
2) Vastus intermedius
3) Vastus medialis
4) Rectus femoris

3

Iliopsoas muscles (3)

1) Psoas major
2) Psoas minor
3) Iliacus

4

Common innervation of quadriceps muscles

Femoral nerve

5

ASIS is origin of what muscle

Sartorius

6

AIIS is origin of what muscle

Rectus femoris

7

Common insertion of iliopsoas muscles

Lesser trochanter

8

Common insertion of adductor muscles of leg

Linea aspera

9

Common insertion of hamstrings

Adductor tubercle of femur

10

Hamstring muscles (4)

1) Semitendinosus
2) Semimebranosus
3) Adductor magnus
4) Biceps femoris

11

Common origin of hamstrings EXCEPT short head of biceps femoris

Ischial tuberosity

12

Origin of short head of biceps femoris

Linea aspera and lateral supracondylar ridge of femur

13

Adductor canal: Runs from ___ to ___

Apex of femoral triangle to adductor hiatus in the adductor magnus tendon

14

Gluteal region: Superficial muscles

Gluteus maximus

15

Gluteal region: Intermediate muscles (2)

1) Gluteus medius
2) Gluteus minimus

16

Gluteal region: Deep group

1) Piriformis
2) Obturator internus
3) Superior and inferior gemelli
4) Quadratus femoris

17

Gluteal region, muscle group-action: Superficial

Extensor of thigh

18

Gluteal region, muscle group-action: Intermediate

Abductor and medial rotator of thigh

19

Gluteal region, muscle group-action: Deep group

Lateral rotator of thigh

20

Common origin of gluteal muscles

Outer surface of ilium

21

Common insertion of gluteal muscles EXCEPT gluteus maximus and quadrates femoris

Greater trochanter of femur

22

Insertion of gluteus maximus

Iliotibial tract (tensor fascia lata)

23

Insertion of quadrates femoris

Quadratus tubercle

24

Muscles that act at thigh: Flexion

Anterior compartment

25

Muscles that act at thigh: Extension

Posterior compartment + gluteus maximus

26

Muscles that act at thigh: Adduction

Medial compartment

27

Muscles that act at thigh: Abduction

Gluteus medius and minimus

28

Muscles that act at thigh: Medial rotation

Gluteus medius and minimus

29

Muscles that act at thigh: Lateral rotation

GQ POG

30

Nerve paralysis: Waddling gate

Superior gluteal nerve

31

Lumbar plexus: Formed within what muscle

Psoas major

32

Lumbar plexus: Nerve roots

Anterior rami of L1-4

33

Iliohypogastric nerve: Root

L1

34

Iliohypogastric nerve: Emerges from

Lateral border of psoas

35

Iliohypogastric nerve: Runs in front of

Quadratus lumborum

36

Iliohypogastric nerve: Supplies

Skin of lower anterior abdominal wall

37

Ilioinguinal nerve: Root

L1

38

Ilioinguinal nerve: Emerges from

Lateral border of psoas

39

Ilioinguinal nerve: Runs in front of

Quadratus lumborum

40

Ilioinguinal nerve: Passes into

Inguinal canal

41

Ilioinguinal nerve: Supplies

Skin of groin and scrotum/labia majora

42

Genitofemoral nerve: Emerges from

Anterior surface of psoas

43

Genitofemoral nerve: Root

L1-2

44

Genitofemoral nerve: Genital branch supplies

Cremaster muscle

45

Genitofemoral nerve: Femoral branch supplies

Skin of thigh

46

Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve: Root

L2-3

47

Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve: Emerges from

Lateral border of psoas

48

Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve: Crosses the

Iliacus

49

Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve: Enters the thigh behind

Inguinal ligament

50

Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve: Supplies

Skin over lateral surface of thigh

51

Femoral nerve: Root

L2,3,4

52

Femoral nerve: Emerges from

Lateral border of psoas

53

Femoral nerve: Supplies

1) Anterior compartment of thigh
2) Skin on anteromedial aspect of thigh and medial foot

54

Obturator nerve: Root

L2,3,4

55

Obturator nerve: Emerges from

Medial border of psoas

56

Obturator nerve: Supplies

1) Medial compartment of thigh
2) Skin on medial aspect of thigh

57

Largest branch of lumbar plexus

Lumbar nerve

58

Lumbosacral plexus: Lies in front of

Piriformis

59

Lumbosacral plexus: Formed by

Anterior rami of L4-5, S1-4

60

Largest branch of lumbosacral plexus

Sciatic nerve

61

Sciatic nerve: Root

L4-5, S1-3

62

Lumbosacral plexus: Branches to the lower limb

1) Sciatic
2) Superior gluteal
3) Inferior gluteal
4) Nerve to quadratus femoris
5) Nerve to obturator internus
6) Posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh

63

Lumbosacral plexus: Branches to the pelvis and perineum

PPPP
1) Pudendal
2) Pelvic splanchnic
3) Piriformis, nerve to
4) Perforating cutaneous nerve

64

Pudendal nerve: Roots

S2,3,4

65

Pelvic splanchnic nerve, Roots

S2,3,4

66

Perforating cutaneous nerve supplies

Lower medial part of buttocks

67

Largest nerve in the body

Sciatic nerve

68

Sciatic nerve supplies

1) Skin of leg and foot
2) Muscles of posterior thigh

69

Nerve paralysis: (+) Trendelenburg sign

Superior gluteal nerve

70

Nerve paralysis: Difficulty in extending thigh at hip as in climbing stairs or rising from a chair

Inferior gluteal nerve

71

Nerve paralysis: Gluteus maximus gait

Inferior gluteal nerve

72

Gait in which patient thrusts the torso posteriorly in an attempt to counteract weakness of affected muscle

Gluteus maximus gait

73

Nerve paralysis: Foot drop

Sciatic nerve/common peroneal

74

Nerve paralysis: Compression due to posterior dislocation of femur

Sciatic nerve

75

Most commonly compressed nerve roots of sciatic nerve

L5-S1

76

Syndrome in which involved muscle places pressure and irritates the sciatic nerve causing pain in the buttocks and referred pain along course of sciatic nerve

Piriformis syndrome

77

Pain that radiates down he back of thigh into lower back

Sciatica

78

Nerve paralysis: Abscess of psoas major muscle

Femoral nerve

79

Nerve paralysis: Pain and paresthesia in the skin of the medial aspect of the leg and foot

Saphenous nerve

80

Nerve paralysis: Sites of injury, saphenous nerve

1) Surgical removal of saphenous vein
2) Lacerated as it pierces the wall of the adductor canal

81

Obturator nerve is most commonly injured at the

Pelvis

82

Nerve paralysis: Inability to adduct thigh at hip

Obturator nerve

83

Nerve paralysis: Paresthesia at the medial thigh

Obturator nerve

84

Femur: Normal neck shaft angle in young child

160 degrees

85

Femur: Normal neck shaft angle in young adult

125 degrees

86

Femur: Decreased neck shaft angle

Coxa vara

87

Femur: Increased neck shaft angle

Coxa valga

88

Femur: Fracture of shaft, position of proximal fragment

1) Flexed by iliopsoas
2) Abducted by gluteus medius
3) Laterally rotated by gluteus maximus

89

Femur: Fracture of shaft, position of distal fragment

1) Pulled up by hamstrings and quadriceps
2) Adducted by adductor muscles

90

Femur: Neck fracture, position of femur

1) Shortened
2) Pulled upward by quads, hamstrings, and adductors
3) Laterally rotated

91

Subcapital vs trochanteric neck fracture: Elderly

Subcapital

92

Subcapital vs trochanteric neck fracture: Young

Trochanteric

93

Major blood supply to the femoral head

Medial femoral circumflex

94

Most common direction of femoral head dislocation

Posterior

95

Triceps surae muscles

1) Gastrocnemius
2) Soleus

96

How many layers of muscle does the foot have

4

97

All sole muscles are innervated by lateral plantar nerve except

???

98

Dorsalis pedis artery pulse, landmark

Between the malleoli or 1st inter metatarsal space

99

Posterior tibial artery pulse, between tendons of

FDL and FHL

100

Lateral cutaneous nerve of leg is a branch of

Common peroneal nerve

101

Superficial peroneal nerve of leg is a branch of

Common peroneal nerve

102

Saphenous nerve is a branch of

Femoral nerve

103

Muscles: Evert and plantar flex the foot

Peroneus muscles

104

Muscles: Invert and plantar flex the foot

Tibialis muscles

105

Nerve: Posterior compartment of leg

Tibial nerve

106

Nerve: Lateral compartment of leg

Superficial peroneal

107

Nerve: Anterior compartemtn of leg

Deep peroneal

108

Nerve: Plantarflexion of foot

Tibial nerve

109

Nerve: Eversion and plantar flexion of foot

Superficial peroneal

110

Nerve: Dorsiflexion of foot

Deep peroneal

111

Nerve paralysis: Can't stand on tiptoes

Tibial nerve

112

Most frequently injured nerve in the lower limb

Common peroneal

113

Nerve paralysis: Compressed at neck of fibula

Common peroneal

114

Nerve paralysis: Paresthesia of skin of webbed space between great toe and second toe

Deep peroneal

115

Nerve paralysis: Steppage gait

Common peroneal

116

Type of joint between femur and tibia

Synovial hinge

117

Type of joint between patella and femur

Synovial gliding

118

Nerve supply of knee joint

1) Femoral
2) Obturator
3) Common peroneal
4) Tibial

119

Anterior vs posterior cruciate ligaments: Lax during flexion

ACL

120

Anterior vs posterior cruciate ligaments: Lax during extension

PCL

121

Anterior vs posterior cruciate ligaments: Prevents forward sliding of tibia on femur

ACL

122

Anterior vs posterior cruciate ligaments: Prevents backward sliding of tibia on femur

PCL

123

Terrible triad/Unhappy triad of O' Donoghue

1) ACL
2) MCL
3) Medial meniscus

124

Injury, MCL vs LCL: Forced abduction of tibia on femur

MCL

125

Injury, MCL vs LCL: Forced adduction of tibia on femur

LCL

126

Injury-affected structure/s: Blow to the lateral aspect of knee

1) MCL
2) Medial meniscus

127

Injury-affected structure: Blow to anterior aspect of flexed knee

ACL

128

Injury-affected structure: (+) anterior drawer sign

ACL

129

Injury-affected structure: (+) posterior drawer sign

PCL

130

Nerve supply of ankle joint (2)

1) Deep peroneal
2) Tibial

131

Talipes calcaneovalgus vs equinovarus: Foot is dorsiflexed and everted

Calcaneovalgus

132

Talipes calcaneovalgus vs equinovarus: Foot is plantar flexed and inverted

Equinovarus

133

Aka clubfoot

Talipes

134

Ultimate lymphatic drainage of lower limb

Deep inguinal nodes