deck_3975307 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > deck_3975307 > Flashcards

Flashcards in deck_3975307 Deck (163):
1

Layers of scalp

SCALP1) Skin2) subCutaneous tissue3) galea Aponeurotica4) Loose areolar tissue5) Pericranium

2

Arteries supplying the scalp are branches of the (2)

1) External carotid artery2) Ophthalmic from internal carotid artery

3

Dangerous area of the scalp

Emissary veins

4

Layer of the scalp that causes scalp wounds to gape

Galea aponeurotica

5

How many bones make up the cranium

8

6

Bones of the cranium

1) Frontal2) Right and left parietal3) Occipital4) Right and left temporal5) Sphenoid6) Ethmoid

7

How many facial bones are there

14

8

Facial bones

1) 2 nasal2) 2 lacrimal 3) Vomer4) 2 inferior concha 5) 2 maxillae6) 2 palatine7) 2 zygomatic8) Mandible

9

Most common facial bone fractures

1) Nasal2) Zygomatic3) Mandible

10

Anterior fontanelles is aka

Bregma

11

Posterior fontanelle is aka

Lambda

12

T/F Mastoid process is present at birth

F

13

Mastoid develops during

First 2 years of life

14

Significance of absence of mastoid at birth

Forceps delivery may result in facial nerve injury

15

Weakest fossa of the skull base

Middle cranial fossa

16

Signs of middle cranial fossa fracture

1) Bleeding into mouth if with sphenoid involvement2) Bleeding or CSF leak from ear3) Facial and auditory nerve injury

17

Raccoon eyes signify fracture of

Frontal portion of skull base

18

Extreme tenderness and bruising over the area of the mastoid process of the skull (behind the ear)

Battle sign

19

Battle sign signify fracture of

Temporal bone

20

Cranial fossa fractured in the presence of a Battle sign

Posterior

21

A temporary improvement in a patient's condition after a traumatic brain injury, after which the condition deteriorates

Lucid interval

22

Lucid interval is indicative of

Epidural hematoma

23

Intracranial hemorrhage, involved blood vessel/s: Epidural

Anterior division of middle meningeal artery

24

Intracranial hemorrhage, involved blood vessel/s: Subdural

Cerebral veins/Bridging/Emissary vessels

25

Intracranial hemorrhage, involved blood vessel/s: Subarachnoid hemorrhage

Aneurysm/angioma

26

Intracranial hemorrhage, involved blood vessel/s: Intraparenchymal

Lenticulostriate artery

27

Adult vs young child: Skull fracture likened to an eggshell

Adult

28

Adult vs young child: Skull fracture likened to a pingpong ball

Young child

29

Adult vs young child: Splintering of bone

Adult

30

Adult vs young child: Pond fracture

Young child

31

Signs of anterior cranial fossa fracture

1) Epistaxis2) Rhinorrhea3) Racoon's eye4) Exophthalmos

32

Signs of middle cranial fossa fracture

1) Rhinorrhea/Otorrhea2) CN 3,4,6,7,8 damage

33

Signs of posterior cranial fossa fracture

1) Battle sign2) CN 9,10,11 damage

34

Anterior arterial circulation of the brain is derived from

Internal carotid artery

35

Posterior arterial circulation of the brain is derived from

Vertebral artery

36

Branches of the internal carotid artery (6)

ICA > CAMPOS1) Choroidal2) ACA3) MCA4) Posterior communicating5) Ophthalmic6) Superior hypophyseal

37

Branches of vertebral artery

MAPP1) Meningeal branches2) Anterior spinal3) Posterior spinal4) Posterior inferior cerebellar

38

Adult vs young child: Splintering of bone

Adult

39

Adult vs young child: Pond fracture

Young child

40

Signs of anterior cranial fossa fracture

1) Epistaxis2) Rhinorrhea3) Racoon's eye4) Exophthalmos

41

Signs of middle cranial fossa fracture

1) Rhinorrhea/Otorrhea2) CN 3,4,6,7,8 damage

42

Signs of posterior cranial fossa fracture

1) Battle sign2) CN 9,10,11 damage

43

Anterior arterial circulation of the brain is derived from

Internal carotid artery

44

Posterior arterial circulation of the brain is derived from

Vertebral artery

45

Branches of the internal carotid artery (6)

CAMPOS1) Choroidal2) ACA3) MCA4) PCA5) Ophthalmic6) Superior hypophyseal

46

3 primary vesicles of developing brain

1) Forebrain/prosencephalon2) Midbrain/mesencephalon3) Hindbrain/rhombencephalon

47

5 secondary vesicles of developing brain

From prosencephalon1) Telencephalon2) DiencephalonFrom Mesencephalon3) MesencephalonFrom Rhombencephalon4) Metencephalon5) Myelencephalon

48

Adult derivative: Telencephalon

1) Cerebral hemispheres2) Lateral ventricles

49

Adult derivative: Diencephalon

1) Thalamus2) 3rd ventricle

50

Adult derivative: Mesencephalon

1) Midbrain2) Aqueduct of Sylvius

51

Adult derivative: Metencephalon

1) Pons2) Cerebellum3) Upper part of 4th ventricle

52

Adult derivative: Myelencephalon

1) Medulla2) Lower part of 4th ventricle

53

Myelination begins at

___ weeks

54

Myelination is almost completed at

___ years

55

Adult derivative of notochord

Nucleus pulpous of intervertebral disc

56

Branches of basilar artery

PPALS1) Pontine branches2) Anterior inferior cerebellar3) Labyrinthine4) PCA5) Superior cerebellar

57

Venous drainage of brain

Dural venous sinuses1) Superior and inferior sagittal sinus2) Great vein of Galen3) Straight sinus4) Transverse sinus5) Sigmoid sinus

58

Dural venous sinuses ultimately empty into

IJV

59

Neural plate is formed at

___ days

60

Neural groove and tube are formed at

___ days

61

Myelination begins at

___ weeks

62

Myelination is almost completed at

___ years

63

Failure of dorsal induction in the development of nervous system results in

1) Anencephaly2) Encephalocele3) Myelomeningocele

64

Disorder of ventral induction in development of nervous system results in

Facial malformations

65

Result of failure of neuropores to fuse at 4th week AOG

NTD

66

NTD: Substance elevated in amniotic fluid and maternal serum

AFP

67

NTD: Helpful confirmatory test

Increased acetylcholinesterase in amniotic fluid

68

Failure of bony spinal canal to close but without structural herniation

Spina bifida occulta

69

Maternal conditions associated with anencephaly

1) Type I DM2) Low folate levels

70

Spina bifida occulta: T/F Dura is intact

T

71

Spina bifida occulta: T/F Found in lower vertebral levels

T

72

Herniation of meninges through spinal canal defect

Meningocele

73

Herniation of meninges and spinal cord through spinal defect

Myelomeningocele

74

Malformation of anterior neural tube resulting in no forebrain

Anencephaly

75

Increased vs decreased AFP: Anencephaly

Increased

76

Poly vs oligohydramnios: Anencephaly

Poly

77

Maternal conditions associated with anencephaly

1) Type I DM2) Low folate levels

78

Failure of left and right hemispheres to separate

Holoprosencephaly

79

Results from severe holoprosencephaly

Cyclopia

80

Significant cerebellar tonsillar and vermin herniation through foramen magnum with aqueductal stenosis and hydrocephalus

Arnold-Chiari malformation or Chiari II

81

Spinal defect associated with Arnold-Chiari malformation or Chiari II

Thoracolumbar myelomeningocele

82

Components of brainstem

1) Midbrain2) Pons3) Medulla

83

Spinal defect associated with Dandy-Walker

Spina bifida

84

Cystic enlargement of central canal of spinal cord

Syringomyelia

85

Syringomyelia: Spinal tract first damaged

Spinothalamic tract

86

Syringomyelia: Characteristic symptom

Cape-like bilateral loss of pain and temp sensation in upper extremities

87

Syringomyelia: Associated with what malformation

Chiari I

88

Cavernous sinus: Contents

1) CaVerNouS: CN III, IV, V1, V2, VI2) Postganglionic SY fibers3) ICA

89

Limbic system governs (5)

5 FsFeedingFeelingFightingFlightSex

90

Components of brainstem

1) Midbrain2) Pons3) Medulla

91

Brainstem: Location of what CN nuclei

3-12

92

Brainstem: Arterial supply

1) Anterior circulation: ICA2) Posterior circulation: Vertebral

93

Collection of sinuses on either side of the pituitary

Cavernous sinus

94

Cavernous sinus: Drains blood from

1) Eye2) Superficial cortex

95

Cavernous sinus: Ultimately drains into

IJV

96

UMN signs are due to damage to

Corticospinal tract

97

Terminal portion of spinal cord

Conus medullaris

98

Fibrous extension of pia mater that anchors spinal cord to coccyx

Filum terminale

99

Brought about by hemisection of the spinal cord

Brown-Sequard syndrome

100

Brown-Sequard syndrome: T/F IPSILATERAL loss of all sensation at the level of the lesion

T

101

Brown-Sequard syndrome: T/F IPSILATERAL UMN signs below level of lesion

T

102

Brown-Sequard syndrome: T/F IPSILATERAL LMN signs below lesion

F, at the level of lesion

103

Foster-Kennedy syndrome

APO1) Anosmia, ipsi2) Papilledema, contra3) Optic atrophy, ipsi

104

UMN signs are due to damage to

Corticospinal tract

105

Demyelination/degeneration of dorsal columns and roots causing impaired sensation and proprioception and progressive sensory ataxia (inability to sense or feel legs)

Tabes dorsalis

106

Tabes dorsalis: Cause

Tertiary syphilis/neurosyphilis

107

Tabes dorsalis: Small bilateral pupils that further constrict to accommodation but not to light

Argyll-Robertson pupil

108

Argyll-Robertson pupil is aka

Prostitute's eye

109

Tabes dorsalis: DTRs

Absent

110

Tabes dorsalis: Romberg sign

Positive

111

Foster-Kennedy syndrome

APO1) Anosmia2) Papilledema3) Optic atrophy

112

Most common site of blowout fracture

Inferior wall

113

Causes of cavernous sinus thrombosis (2)

1) Infections in the dangerous area of the face2) Facial vein thrombosis

114

In infections of the dangerous area of face, organism ascends through

Inferior ophthalmic vein

115

Blowout fracture: Explodes into

Maxillary sinus

116

Blowout fracture: Injures

???

117

Blowout fracture: Entrapment of

Inferior rectus muscle

118

The eye is least protected from which side

Lateral

119

Eye trauma: Most common cause

Blunt head trauma

120

Most common site of blowout fracture

Inferior wall

121

Radiologic sign representing periorbital fat or entrapped EOM in the maxillary sinus

Teardrop sign

122

Muscles of eyelids: Sphincters

Orbicularis oculi (orbital, palpebral, and lacrimal parts)

123

Muscles of eyelids: Sphincters, nerve supply

Facial nerve

124

Muscles of eyelids: Dilators

1) Levator palpebrae superioris2) ??? Occipitofrontalis (raises eyebrow)

125

Muscles of eyelids: Dilators, nerve supply

1) Striated muscle: Oculomotor nerve2) Smooth muscle: SY

126

Muscles of facial expression: Situated in which layer of skin

Superficial fascia

127

Muscles of facial expression: Common origin

Skull

128

Muscles of facial expression: Common insertion

Skin

129

Muscles of facial expression: Common innervation

Facial nerve

130

Nerve damaged in Bell's palsy

Facial nerve

131

Muscles of facial expression: Pulls eyebrow medially

Corrugator supercilli

132

Muscles of facial expression: Wrinkles skin at root of nose

Procerus

133

Muscles of facial expression: Compresses the cheeks and lips against teeth; blowing

Buccinator

134

Muscles of facial expression: Muscle involved in generalised tetanus resulting in sardonic grin

Risorius

135

Muscles of facial expression: Closes eyelids

Palpebral part of orbicular is oculi

136

Muscles of facial expression: Seen in aging

Crow's feet

137

Muscles of facial expression: Involved in hemifacial spasm

Orbicularis oculi

138

Muscles of facial expression: Injected with botulinum A toxin

Orbicularis oculi

139

Muscles of mastication

1) Masseter2) TeMporalis3) Medial pterygoid4) Lateral pterygoid

140

Muscles of mastication: Closes the jaw

3 Ms1) Masseter2) TeMporalis3) Medial pterygoid

141

Muscles of mastication: Opens and protracts the jaw

Lateral pterygoid

142

Muscles of mastication: Common innervation

V3

143

Tongue: Origin of anterior 2/3

1st branchial arch

144

Tongue: Origin of posterior 1/3

3rd and 4th branchial arches

145

Tongue, nerve for tase: Anterior 2/3

CN VII

146

Tongue, nerve for tase: Posterior 1/3

CN IX

147

Tongue, sensory innervation: Anterior 2/3

CN V3

148

Tongue, sensory innervation: Posterior 1/3

CN IX

149

Tongue, taste and sensory innervation: Extreme posterior

CN X

150

Tongue: Motor innervation

CN XII EXCEPT palatoglossus (CN IX, X)

151

Group of nerves for taste

Nucleus solitariusCN VII, IX, X

152

Acoustic schwannoma: Most common symptoms

1) Tinnitus2) Hearing loss

153

Acoustic schwannoma: Associated with what hereditary condition

NF type 2

154

Most common cerebellopontine angle tumor

Acoustic schwannoma

155

Branch of glossopharyngeal nerve that supplies carotid sinus

Sinus nerve of Hering

156

Important branches of vagus nerve to the neck

X-CRAMP1) Cardiac2) Recurrent laryngeal3) Auricular4) Meningeal5) Pharyngeal

157

All muscles of palate are supplied by

Pharyngeal plexus EXCEPT tensor velli palatini (CN V)

158

All muscles of pharynx are innervated by

CN X EXCEPT stylopharyngeus (CN IX)

159

All muscles of larynx are innervated by

CN X EXCEPT cricothyroid (external branch of superior laryngeal nerve)

160

Adult GCS

Image

161

Pediatric GCS

Image

162

Components of vertical buttress system

1) Zygomaticofrontomaxillary2) Nasomaxillary3) Pterygomaxillary

163

Components of the horizontal buttress system

1) Supraorbital bar2) Inferior orbital rim/orbital floor3) Alveolus