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Flashcards in Cardiac Conditions Deck (40)
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1

Which direction does a PDA shunt blood?

L to R (from aorta to pulmonary artery)

2

Continuous/washing machine mumur

PDA

3

Waterhammer pulses

PDA

4

What is the most common congenital heart defect in dogs?

PDA

5

What is the most common congenital heart defect in species other than dogs?

VSD

6

How do you treat a PDA?

Surgical ligation or coil embolization

7

How do you treat a reverse PDA?

None

8

Which valve is most commonly affected by endocarditis in cows?

Tricuspid

9

Which valve is most commonly affected by endocarditis in horses and small animals?

Aortic and mitral

10

What can valvular endocarditis lead to?

Mitral regurgitation

11

Does aortic regurgitation cause poor performance in horses?

No

12

Decrescendo holodiastolic murmur @ left base of horse heart

Aortic regurgitation

13

What will you see on an echo of valvular endocarditis?

Vegetative lesions on heart valves

14

Muffled heart sounds, pulsus paradoxus, and electrical alternans are all assoc. w/what heart condition?

Pericardial effusion

15

How do you treat a pericardial effusion?

Pericardiocentesis, pericardectomy

16

Why should you not give furosemide to a pericardial effusion?

Decreases preload on R heart = circulatory failure

17

How will a pericardial effusion present on necropsy?

Nutmeg liver d/t R-CHF

18

How will a pericardial effusion appear on rads?

Enlarged globoid heart

19

Which arrhythmia causes pulse deficits but is usually clinically insignificant and is only sometimes assoc. w/cardiac disease?

APCs

20

What is the most common supraventricular arrhythmia in cattle?

A-fib

21

What causes A-fib in cattle?

Vagal tone, hypo/hyperK, Ca therapy

22

What is the most common pathologic arrhythmia in horses?

A-fib

23

Pulsus alternans is assoc w/which arrhythmia?

A-fib

24

How do you treat A-fib in a horse?

Quinidine (Na channel blocker)

25

If quinidine treatment of A-fib causes acceleration in ventricular response rate or HR >90, what other drug should you use as an adjunctive treatment?

Digoxin

26

How do you treat A-fib in a dog?

Diltiazem, digoxin, atenolol, procainamide

27

Chaotic electrical activity and mechanical activity during cardiac arrest?

V-fib

28

When should you treat a dog with VPCs?

>100/24h, HR >180, R-on-T

29

How do you treat V-tach?

Lidocaine

30

What is ventricular asystole?

No electrical or mechanical activity